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Multi angle  Some results on global solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations
Gallagher, Isabelle (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

In this talk we shall present some results concerning global smooth solutions to the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations set in the whole space $(\mathbb{R}^3)$ :
$\partial_tu+u\cdot \nabla u-\Delta u = -\nabla p$, div $u=0$
We shall more particularly be interested in the geometry of the set $\mathcal{G}$ of initial data giving rise to a global smooth solution.
The question we shall address is the following: given an initial data $u_0$ in $\mathcal{G}$ and a sequence of divergence free vector fields converging towards $u_0$ in the sense of distributions, is the sequence itself in $\mathcal{G}$ ? The related question of strong stability was studied in [1] and [2] some years ago; the weak stability result is a recent work, joint with H. Bahouri and J.-Y. Chemin (see [3]-[4]). As we shall explain, it is necessary to restrict the study to sequences converging weakly up to rescaling (under the natural rescaling of the equation). Then weak stability can be proved, using profile decompositions in the spirit of P. Gerard's work [5], in an anisotropic context.
In this talk we shall present some results concerning global smooth solutions to the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations set in the whole space $(\mathbb{R}^3)$ :
$\partial_tu+u\cdot \nabla u-\Delta u = -\nabla p$, div $u=0$
We shall more particularly be interested in the geometry of the set $\mathcal{G}$ of initial data giving rise to a global smooth solution.
The question we shall address is the following: given an initial data $u_0$ in ...

35Q30 ; 76E09

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=link&xRecord=19252297146910704799" class='linkstyle1'>35A21 ; 35A27 ; 35B34 ; 35B40 ; 58J40 ; 58J47 ; 83C35 ; 83C57

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Post-edited  Introduction to hierarchical tiling dynamical systems: Supertile construction methods
Frank, Natalie Priebe (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

These lectures introduce the dynamical systems approach to tilings of Euclidean space, especially quasicrystalline tilings that have been constructed using a ‘supertile method’. Because tiling dynamics parallels one-dimensional symbolic dynamics, we discuss this case as well, highlighting the differences and similarities in the methods of study and the results that can be obtained.
In the first lecture we motivate the field with the discovery of quasicrystals, which led to D. Schectman’s winning the 2011 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Then we set up the basics of tiling dynamics, describing tiling spaces, a tiling metric, and the shift or translation actions. Shift-invariant and ergodic measures are discussed, along with fundamental topological and dynamical properties.
The second lecture brings in the supertile construction methods, including symbolic substitutions, self-similar tilings, $S$-adic systems, and fusion rules. Numerous examples are given, most of which are not the “standard” examples, and we identify many commonalities and differences between these interrelated methods of construction. Then we compare and contrast dynamical results for supertile systems, highlighting those key insights that can be adapted to all cases.
In the third lecture we investigate one of the many current tiling research areas: spectral theory. Schectman made his Nobel-prize-winning discovery using diffraction analysis, and studying the mathematical version has been quite fruitful. Spectral theory of tiling dynamical systems is also of broad interest. We describe how these types of spectral analysis are carried out, give examples, and discuss what is known and unknown about the relationship between dynamical and diffraction analysis. Special attention is paid to the “point spectrum”, which is related to eigenfunctions and also to the bright spots that appear on diffraction images.
These lectures introduce the dynamical systems approach to tilings of Euclidean space, especially quasicrystalline tilings that have been constructed using a ‘supertile method’. Because tiling dynamics parallels one-dimensional symbolic dynamics, we discuss this case as well, highlighting the differences and similarities in the methods of study and the results that can be obtained.
In the first lecture we motivate the field with the discovery of ...

37B50 ; 37B10 ; 52C23

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Multi angle  De la géométrie à la dynamique de populations et des communautés
Poggiale, Jean-Christophe (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

L'écologie est une discipline quantitative dans laquelle les mathématiques sont présentes sous différentes formes depuis très longtemps. En conséquence, l'arrivée massive d'ordinateurs de plus en plus puissants dans les laboratoires dans les dernières décennies, a conduit à une explosion de la modélisation dans ce domaine, sous forme de calculs numériques mais également par l'analyse mathématique de modèles relativement simples. Cette croissance importante de l'activité de modélisation mathématique a été accompagnée par une augmentation de la complexité des modèles d'écologie qui tentent d'intégrer la plus grosse quantité de processus connus possible. Parallèlement, les moyens d'expérimentations et d'observation du milieu naturel n'ont pas cessé de s'améliorer, produisant ainsi des bases de données de plus en plus complètes dans la description du fonctionnement des écosystèmes. Paradoxalement, la formulation de base des processus utilisée dans les modèles complexes est toujours la même et fondée sur des expérimentations réalisées dans des conditions homogènes de laboratoire au cours du XXème siècle. Nous posons la question de l'intérêt d'une description adéquate d'un écosystème pour comprendre ses réponses à différentes perturbations. Une approche consiste à utiliser des formulations mécanistes des processus, c'est à dire des formulations fondées sur des détails expliquant la cause de la réalisation des processus, plutôt que des formulations empiriques acquises dans des conditions différentes du milieu dans lequel on les applique. Cette prise en compte des mécanismes induit encore un surcroit de complexité. Les mathématiques fournissent un ensemble d'idées et de méthodes permettant tout d'abord de produire des formulations adaptées à la prise en compte des mécanismes et également d'aborder cette complexité des modèles écosystémiques, voire dans certains cas de la réduire. Nous illustrerons cette démarche à travers des exemples d'applications variés. L'écologie est une discipline quantitative dans laquelle les mathématiques sont présentes sous différentes formes depuis très longtemps. En conséquence, l'arrivée massive d'ordinateurs de plus en plus puissants dans les laboratoires dans les dernières décennies, a conduit à une explosion de la modélisation dans ce domaine, sous forme de calculs numériques mais également par l'analyse mathématique de modèles relativement simples. Cette croissance ...

34E13 ; 34E15 ; 34E20 ; 92D25 ; 92D40

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Multi angle  Pseudo-Anosov braids are generic
Wiest, Bert (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

We prove that generic elements of braid groups are pseudo-Anosov, in the following sense: in the Cayley graph of the braid group with $n\geq 3$ strands, with respect to Garside's generating set, we prove that the proportion of pseudo-Anosov braids in the ball of radius $l$ tends to $1$ exponentially quickly as $l$ tends to infinity. Moreover, with a similar notion of genericity, we prove that for generic pairs of elements of the braid group, the conjugacy search problem can be solved in quadratic time. The idea behind both results is that generic braids can be conjugated ''easily'' into a rigid braid.
braid groups - Garside groups - Nielsen-Thurston classification - pseudo-Anosov - conjugacy problem
We prove that generic elements of braid groups are pseudo-Anosov, in the following sense: in the Cayley graph of the braid group with $n\geq 3$ strands, with respect to Garside's generating set, we prove that the proportion of pseudo-Anosov braids in the ball of radius $l$ tends to $1$ exponentially quickly as $l$ tends to infinity. Moreover, with a similar notion of genericity, we prove that for generic pairs of elements of the braid group, the ...

20F36 ; 20F10 ; 20F65

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Multi angle  Discrete systolic geometry and decompositions of triangulated surfaces
De Mesmay, Arnaud (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

How much cutting is needed to simplify the topology of a surface? We provide bounds for several instances of this question, for the minimum length of topologically non-trivial closed curves, pants decompositions, and cut graphs with a given combinatorial map in triangulated combinatorial surfaces (or their dual cross-metric counterpart).
Our work builds upon Riemannian systolic inequalities, which bound the minimum length of non-trivial closed curves in terms of the genus and the area of the surface. We first describe a systematic way to translate Riemannian systolic inequalities to a discrete setting, and vice-versa. This implies a conjecture by Przytycka and Przytycki from 1993, a number of new systolic inequalities in the discrete setting, and the fact that a theorem of Hutchinson on the edge-width of triangulated surfaces and Gromov's systolic inequality for surfaces are essentially equivalent. We also discuss how these proofs generalize to higher dimensions.
Then we focus on topological decompositions of surfaces. Relying on ideas of Buser, we prove the existence of pants decompositions of length $O(g^{3/2}n^{1/2})$ for any triangulated combinatorial surface of genus g with n triangles, and describe an $O(gn)$-time algorithm to compute such a decomposition.
Finally, we consider the problem of embedding a cut graph (or more generally a cellular graph) with a given combinatorial map on a given surface. Using random triangulations, we prove (essentially) that, for any choice of a combinatorial map, there are some surfaces on which any cellular embedding with that combinatorial map has length superlinear in the number of triangles of the triangulated combinatorial surface. There is also a similar result for graphs embedded on polyhedral triangulations.
systolic geometry - computational topology - topological graph theory - graphs on surfaces - triangulations - random graphs
How much cutting is needed to simplify the topology of a surface? We provide bounds for several instances of this question, for the minimum length of topologically non-trivial closed curves, pants decompositions, and cut graphs with a given combinatorial map in triangulated combinatorial surfaces (or their dual cross-metric counterpart).
Our work builds upon Riemannian systolic inequalities, which bound the minimum length of non-trivial closed ...

05C10 ; 68U05 ; 53C23 ; 57M15 ; 68R10