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Mathematical Physics  | enregistrements trouvés : 128

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Post-edited  Geometric Langlands correspondence and topological field theory - Part 1 Ben-Zvi, David (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

Kapustin and Witten introduced a powerful perspective on the geometric Langlands correspondence as an aspect of electric-magnetic duality in four dimensional gauge theory. While the familiar (de Rham) correspondence is best seen as a statement in conformal field theory, much of the structure can be seen in the simpler (Betti) setting of topological field theory using Lurie's proof of the Cobordism Hypothesis. In these lectures I will explain this perspective and illustrate its applications to representation theory following joint work with Nadler as well as Brochier, Gunningham, Jordan and Preygel. Kapustin and Witten introduced a powerful perspective on the geometric Langlands correspondence as an aspect of electric-magnetic duality in four dimensional gauge theory. While the familiar (de Rham) correspondence is best seen as a statement in conformal field theory, much of the structure can be seen in the simpler (Betti) setting of topological field theory using Lurie's proof of the Cobordism Hypothesis. In these lectures I will explain ...

Post-edited  Wall-crossing for Donaldson-Thomas invariants Bridgeland, Tom (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

There is a very general story, due to Joyce and Kontsevich-Soibelman, which associates to a CY3 (three-dimensional Calabi-Yau) triangulated category equipped with a stability condition some rational numbers called Donaldson-Thomas (DT) invariants. The point I want to emphasise is that the wall-crossing formula, which describes how these numbers change as the stability condition is varied, takes the form of an iso-Stokes condition for a family of connections on the punctured disc, where the structure group is the infinite-dimensional group of symplectic automorphisms of an algebraic torus. I will not assume any knowledge of stability conditions, DT invariants etc. There is a very general story, due to Joyce and Kontsevich-Soibelman, which associates to a CY3 (three-dimensional Calabi-Yau) triangulated category equipped with a stability condition some rational numbers called Donaldson-Thomas (DT) invariants. The point I want to emphasise is that the wall-crossing formula, which describes how these numbers change as the stability condition is varied, takes the form of an iso-Stokes condition for a family of ...

Post-edited  Lagrange's research on the nature and propagation of sound Darrigol, Olivier (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

The most important works of the young Lagrange were two very learned memoirs on sound and its propagation. In a tour de force of mathematical analysis, he solved the relevant partial differential equations in a novel manner and he applied the solutions to a number of acoustic problems. Although Euler and d'Alembert may have been the only contemporaries who fully appreciated these memoirs, their contents anticipated much more of Fourier analysis than is usually believed. On the physical side, Lagrange properly explained the functioning of string and air-column instruments, although he did not accept harmonic analysis as we now understand it.
Lagrange - acoustics - propagation of sound - harmonic analysis - Fourier analysis - vibrating strings - organ pipes
The most important works of the young Lagrange were two very learned memoirs on sound and its propagation. In a tour de force of mathematical analysis, he solved the relevant partial differential equations in a novel manner and he applied the solutions to a number of acoustic problems. Although Euler and d'Alembert may have been the only contemporaries who fully appreciated these memoirs, their contents anticipated much more of Fourier analysis ...

Post-edited  Phase retrieval in infinite dimensions Daubechies, Ingrid (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

Retrieving an arbitrary signal from the magnitudes of its inner products with the elements of a frame is not possible in infinite dimensions. Under certain conditions, signals can be retrieved satisfactorily however.

Post-edited  The Onsager Theorem De Lellis, Camillo (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

In the fifties John Nash astonished the geometers with his celebrated isometric embedding theorems. A folkloristic explanation of his first theorem is that you should be able to put any piece of paper in your pocket without crumpling or folding it, no matter how large it is.
Ten years ago László Székelyhidi and I discovered unexpected similarities with the behavior of some classical equations in fluid dynamics. Our remark sparked a series of discoveries and works which have gone in several directions. Among them the most notable is the recent proof of Phil Isett of a long-standing conjecture of Lars Onsager in the theory of turbulent flows. In a joint work with László, Tristan Buckmaster and Vlad Vicol we improve Isett's theorem to show the existence of dissipative solutions of the incompressible Euler equations below the Onsager's threshold.
In the fifties John Nash astonished the geometers with his celebrated isometric embedding theorems. A folkloristic explanation of his first theorem is that you should be able to put any piece of paper in your pocket without crumpling or folding it, no matter how large it is.
Ten years ago László Székelyhidi and I discovered unexpected similarities with the behavior of some classical equations in fluid dynamics. Our remark sparked a series of ...

Post-edited  Collective dynamics in life sciences - Lecture 1. Collective dynamics and self-organization in biological systems: challenges and some examples Degond, Pierre (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

Lecture 1. Collective dynamics and self-organization in biological systems : challenges and some examples.

Lecture 2. The Vicsek model as a paradigm for self-organization : from particles to fluid via kinetic descriptions

Lecture 3. Phase transitions in the Vicsek model : mathematical analyses in the kinetic framework.

Post-edited  Mathematical properties of hierarchies of reduced MHD models Després, Bruno (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

Reduced MHD models in Tokamak geometry are convenient simplifications of full MHD and are fundamental for the numerical simulation of MHD stability in Tokamaks. This presentation will address the mathematical well-posedness and the justification of the such models.
The first result is a systematic design of hierachies of well-posed reduced MHD models. Here well-posed means that the system is endowed with a physically sound energy identity and that existence of a weak solution can be proved. Some of these models will be detailed.
The second result is perhaps more important for applications. It provides understanding on the fact the the growth rate of linear instabilities of the initial (non reduced) model is lower bounded by the growth rate of linear instabilities of the reduced model.
This work has been done with Rémy Sart.
Reduced MHD models in Tokamak geometry are convenient simplifications of full MHD and are fundamental for the numerical simulation of MHD stability in Tokamaks. This presentation will address the mathematical well-posedness and the justification of the such models.
The first result is a systematic design of hierachies of well-posed reduced MHD models. Here well-posed means that the system is endowed with a physically sound energy ...

Post-edited  The Weil algebra of a Hopf algebra Dubois-Violette, Michel (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

We give a summary of a joint work with Giovanni Landi (Trieste University) on a non commutative generalization of Henri Cartan's theory of operations, algebraic connections and Weil algebra.

Post-edited  Numerical simulation of the Vlasov-Poisson model with an external magnetic field Filbet, Francis (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

We present an efficient algorithm for the long time behavior of plasma simulations. We will focus on 4D drift-kinetic model, where the plasma's motion occurs in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field and can be governed by the 2D guiding-center model. Hermite WENO reconstructions, already proposed in [1], are applied for solving the Vlasov equation. Here we consider an arbitrary computational domain with an appropriate numerical method for the treatment of boundary conditions. Then we apply this algorithm for plasma turbulence simulations. We first solve the 2D guiding-center model in a D-shape domain and investigate the numerical stability of the steady state. Then, the 4D drift-kinetic model is studied with a mixed method, i.e. the semi-Lagrangian method in linear phase and finite difference method during the nonlinear phase. Numerical results show that the mixed method is efficient and accurate in linear phase and it is much stable during the nonlinear phase. Moreover, in practice it has better conservation properties.

Keywords: Cartesian mesh - semi-Lagrangian method - Hermite WENO reconstruction - guiding-center - drift-kinetic model
We present an efficient algorithm for the long time behavior of plasma simulations. We will focus on 4D drift-kinetic model, where the plasma's motion occurs in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field and can be governed by the 2D guiding-center model. Hermite WENO reconstructions, already proposed in [1], are applied for solving the Vlasov equation. Here we consider an arbitrary computational domain with an appropriate numerical method ...

Post-edited  The geometrical gyro-kinetic approximation Frénod, Emmanuel (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

At the end of the 70', Littlejohn [1, 2, 3] shed new light on what is called the Gyro-Kinetic Approximation. His approach incorporated high-level mathematical concepts from Hamiltonian Mechanics, Differential Geometry and Symplectic Geometry into a physical affordable theory in order to clarify what has been done for years in the domain. This theory has been being widely used to deduce the numerical methods for Tokamak and Stellarator simulation. Yet, it was formal from the mathematical point of view and not directly accessible for mathematicians.
This talk will present a mathematically rigorous version of the theory. The way to set out this Gyro-Kinetic Approximation consists of the building of a change of coordinates that decouples the Hamiltonian dynamical system satisfied by the characteristics of charged particles submitted to a strong magnetic field into a part that concerns the fast oscillation induced by the magnetic field and a other part that describes a slower dynamics.
This building is made of two steps. The goal of the first one, so-called "Darboux Algorithm", is to give to the Poisson Matrix (associated to the Hamiltonian system) a form that would achieve the goal of decoupling if the Hamiltonian function does not depend on one given variable. Then the second change of variables (which is in fact a succession of several ones), so-called "Lie Algorithm", is to remove the given variable from the Hamiltonian function without changing the form of the Poisson Matrix.
(Notice that, beside this Geometrical Gyro-Kinetic Approximation Theory, an alternative approach, based on Asymptotic Analysis and Homogenization Methods was developed in Frenod and Sonnendrücker [5, 6, 7], Frenod, Raviart and Sonnendrücker [4], Golse and Saint-Raymond [9] and Ghendrih, Hauray and Nouri [8].)
At the end of the 70', Littlejohn [1, 2, 3] shed new light on what is called the Gyro-Kinetic Approximation. His approach incorporated high-level mathematical concepts from Hamiltonian Mechanics, Differential Geometry and Symplectic Geometry into a physical affordable theory in order to clarify what has been done for years in the domain. This theory has been being widely used to deduce the numerical methods for Tokamak and Stellarator s...

Post-edited  A simple HLLC-type Riemann solver for compressible non-equilibrium two-phase flows Furfaro, Damien (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

A simple, robust and accurate HLLC-type Riemann solver for two-phase 7-equation type models is built. It involves 4 waves per phase, i.e. the three conventional right- and left-facing and contact waves, augmented by an extra "interfacial" wave. Inspired by the Discrete Equations Method (Abgrall and Saurel, 2003), this wave speed $u_I$ is assumed function only of the piecewise constant initial data. Therefore it is computed easily from these initial data. The same is done for the interfacial pressure $P_I$. Interfacial variables $u_I$ and $P_I$ are thus local constants in the Riemann problem. Thanks to this property there is no difficulty to express the non-conservative system of partial differential equations in local conservative form. With the conventional HLLC wave speed estimates and the extra interfacial speed $u_I$, the four-waves Riemann problem for each phase is solved following the same strategy as in Toro et al. (1994) for the Euler equations. As $u_I$ and $P_I$ are functions only of the Riemann problem initial data, the two-phase Riemann problem consists in two independent Riemann problems with 4 waves only. Moreover, it is shown that these solvers are entropy producing. The method is easy to code and very robust. Its accuracy is validated against exact solutions as well as experimental data. A simple, robust and accurate HLLC-type Riemann solver for two-phase 7-equation type models is built. It involves 4 waves per phase, i.e. the three conventional right- and left-facing and contact waves, augmented by an extra "interfacial" wave. Inspired by the Discrete Equations Method (Abgrall and Saurel, 2003), this wave speed $u_I$ is assumed function only of the piecewise constant initial data. Therefore it is computed easily from these ...

Post-edited  Macroscopic fluctuation theory. Lecture 1: Particle systems, scaling limits and large deviations Gabrielli, Davide (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

In this first lecture I will introduce a class of stochastic microscopic models very useful as toy models in non equilibrium statistical mechanics. These are multi-component stochastic particle systems like the exclusion process, the zero range process and the KMP model. I will discuss their scaling limits and the corresponding large deviations principles. Problems of interest are the computation of the current flowing across a system and the understanding of the structure of the stationary non equilibrium states. I will discuss these problems in specific examples and from two different perspectives. The stochastic microscopic and combinatorial point of view and the macroscopic variational approach where the microscopic details of the models are encoded just by the transport coefficients. In this first lecture I will introduce a class of stochastic microscopic models very useful as toy models in non equilibrium statistical mechanics. These are multi-component stochastic particle systems like the exclusion process, the zero range process and the KMP model. I will discuss their scaling limits and the corresponding large deviations principles. Problems of interest are the computation of the current flowing across a system and the ...

Post-edited  Modelling of magnetic fusion plasmas: from fluid to kinetic description: kinetic MHD Garbet, Xavier (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

This lecture will present a short overview on kinetic MHD. The advantages and drawbacks of kinetic versus fluid modelling will be summarized. Various techniques to implement kinetic effects in the fluid description will be introduced with increasing complexity: bi-fluid effects, gyroaverage fields, Landau closures. Hybrid formulations, which combine fluid and kinetic approaches will be presented. It will be shown that these formulations raise several difficulties, including inconsistent ordering and choice of representation. The non linear dynamics of an internal kink mode in a tokamak will be used as a test bed for the various formulations. It will be shown that bi-fluid effects can explain to some extent fast plasma relaxations (reconnection), but cannot address kinetic instabilities due to energetic particles. Some results of hybrid codes will be shown. Recent developments and perspectives will be given in conclusion. This lecture will present a short overview on kinetic MHD. The advantages and drawbacks of kinetic versus fluid modelling will be summarized. Various techniques to implement kinetic effects in the fluid description will be introduced with increasing complexity: bi-fluid effects, gyroaverage fields, Landau closures. Hybrid formulations, which combine fluid and kinetic approaches will be presented. It will be shown that these formulations raise ...

Post-edited  Mathematical and numerical analysis of some fluid structure interaction problems - Lecture 1 Grandmont, Céline (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

Many physical phenomena deal with a fluid interacting with a moving rigid or deformable structure. These kinds of problems have a lot of important applications, for instance, in aeroelasticity, biomechanics, hydroelasticity, sedimentation, etc. From the analytical point of view as well as from the numerical point of view they have been studied extensively over the past years. We will mainly focus on viscous fluid interacting with an elastic structure. The purpose of the present lecture is to present an overview of some of the mathematical and numerical difficulties that may be encountered when dealing with fluid­structure interaction problems such as the geometrical nonlinearities or the added mass effect and how one can deal with these difficulties. Many physical phenomena deal with a fluid interacting with a moving rigid or deformable structure. These kinds of problems have a lot of important applications, for instance, in aeroelasticity, biomechanics, hydroelasticity, sedimentation, etc. From the analytical point of view as well as from the numerical point of view they have been studied extensively over the past years. We will mainly focus on viscous fluid interacting with an elastic ...

Post-edited  School on the mathematics of strings theory : introduction Kashani-Poor, Amir-Kian (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

This school consists of an array of courses which at first glance may seem to have little in common. The underlying structure relating gauge theory to enumerative geometry to number theory is string theory. In this short introduction, we will attempt to give a schematic overview of how the various topics covered in this school fit into this overarching framework.

Post-edited  Darcy problem and crowd motion modeling Maury, Bertrand (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

We describe here formal analogies between the Darcy equations, that describe the flow of a viscous fluid in a porous medium, and some problems arising from the handing of congestion in crowd motion models.
At the microscopic level, individuals are identified to rigid discs, and the dual handling of the non overlapping constraint leads to discrete Darcy-like equations with a unilateral constraint that involves the velocities and interaction pressures, and that are set on the contact network. At the macroscopic level, a similar problem is obtained, that is set on the congested zone.
We emphasize the differences between the two settings: at the macroscopic level, a straight use of the maximum principle shows that congestion actually favors evacuation, which is in contradiction with experimental evidence. On the contrary, in the microscopic setting, the very particular structure of the discrete differential operators makes it possible to reproduce observed "Stop and Go waves", and the so called "Faster is Slower" effect.
We describe here formal analogies between the Darcy equations, that describe the flow of a viscous fluid in a porous medium, and some problems arising from the handing of congestion in crowd motion models.
At the microscopic level, individuals are identified to rigid discs, and the dual handling of the non overlapping constraint leads to discrete Darcy-like equations with a unilateral constraint that involves the velocities and interaction ...

Post-edited  High energy asymptotics of the scattering matrix for Schrödinger and Dirac operators Nakamura, Shu (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

We consider short-range perturbations of elliptic operators on $R^d$ with constant coefficients, and study the asymptotic properties of the scattering matrix as the energy tends to infinity. We give the leading terms of the symbol of the scattering matrix. The proof employs semiclassical analysis combined with a generalization of the Isozaki-Kitada theory on time-independent modifiers. We also consider scattering matrices for 2 and 3 dimensional Dirac operators. (joint work with Alexander Pushnitski (King's College London) We consider short-range perturbations of elliptic operators on $R^d$ with constant coefficients, and study the asymptotic properties of the scattering matrix as the energy tends to infinity. We give the leading terms of the symbol of the scattering matrix. The proof employs semiclassical analysis combined with a generalization of the Isozaki-Kitada theory on time-independent modifiers. We also consider scattering matrices for 2 and 3 dimensional ...

Post-edited  Palm equivalence and quasi-symmetries of determinantal point processes associated with Hilbert spaces of holomorphic functions Qiu, Yanqi (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

Two important examples of the determinantal point processes associated with the Hilbert spaces of holomorphic functions are the Ginibre point process and the set of zeros of the Gaussian Analytic Functions on the unit disk. In this talk, I will talk such class of determinantal point processes in greater generality. The main topics concerned are the equivalence of the reduced Palm measures and the quasi-invariance of these point processes under certain natural group action of the group of compactly supported diffeomorphisms of the phase space. This talk is based partly on the joint works with Alexander I. Bufetov and partly on a more recent joint work with Alexander I. Bufetov and Shilei Fan. Two important examples of the determinantal point processes associated with the Hilbert spaces of holomorphic functions are the Ginibre point process and the set of zeros of the Gaussian Analytic Functions on the unit disk. In this talk, I will talk such class of determinantal point processes in greater generality. The main topics concerned are the equivalence of the reduced Palm measures and the quasi-invariance of these point processes under ...

Post-edited  Emergent anyons in quantum Hall physics Rougerie, Nicolas (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

Anyons are by definition particles with quantum statistics different from those of bosons and fermions. They can occur only in low dimensions, 2D being the most relevant case for this talk. They have hitherto remained hypothetical, but there is good theoretical evidence that certain quasi-particles occuring in quantum Hall physics should behave as anyons.

I shall consider the case of tracer particles immersed in a so-called Laughlin liquid. I will argue that, under certain circumstances, these become anyons. This is made manifest by the emergence of a particular effective Hamiltonian for their motion. The latter is notoriously hard to solve even in simple cases, and well-controled simplifications are highly desirable. I will discuss a possible mean-field approximation, leading to a one-particle energy functional with self-consistent magnetic field.
Anyons are by definition particles with quantum statistics different from those of bosons and fermions. They can occur only in low dimensions, 2D being the most relevant case for this talk. They have hitherto remained hypothetical, but there is good theoretical evidence that certain quasi-particles occuring in quantum Hall physics should behave as anyons.

I shall consider the case of tracer particles immersed in a so-called Laughlin liquid. I ...

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