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Topology  | enregistrements trouvés : 37

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There are already too many introductory articles on Khovanov homology and certainly another is not needed. On the other hand by now - 15 years after the invention of subject - it is quite easy to get lost after having taken those first few steps. What could be useful is a rough guide to some of the developments over that time and the summer school Quantum Topology at the CIRM in Luminy has provided the ideal opportunity for thinking about what such a guide should look like.
It is quite a risky undertaking because it is all too easy to offend by omission, misrepresentation or other. I have not attempted a complete literature survey and inevitably these notes reflects my personal view, jaundiced as it may often be. My apologies for any offence caused.
I would like to express my warm thanks to Lukas Lewark, Alex Shumakovitch, Liam Watson and Ben Webster.
There are already too many introductory articles on Khovanov homology and certainly another is not needed. On the other hand by now - 15 years after the invention of subject - it is quite easy to get lost after having taken those first few steps. What could be useful is a rough guide to some of the developments over that time and the summer school Quantum Topology at the CIRM in Luminy has provided the ideal opportunity for thinking about what ...

57M25 ; 57M27

I will discuss work in progress aimed towards defining contact homology using "virtual" holomorphic curve counting techniques.

37J10 ; 53D35 ; 53D40 ; 53D42 ; 53D45 ; 57R17

Post-edited  Braids and Galois groups
Matzat, B. Heinrich (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

arithmetic fundamental group - Galois theory - braid groups - rigid analytic geometry - rigidity of finite groups

12F12 ; 11R32 ; 20F36 ; 20D08

A popular line of research in evolutionary biology is to use time-calibrated phylogenies in order to infer the underlying diversification process. This involves the use of stochastic models of ultrametric trees, i.e., trees whose tips lie at the same distance from the root. We recast some well-known models of ultrametric trees (infinite regular trees, exchangeable coalescents, coalescent point processes) in the framework of so-called comb metric spaces and give some applications of coalescent point processes to the phylogeny of bird species.

However, these models of diversification assume that species are exchangeable particles, and this always leads to the same (Yule) tree shape in distribution. Here, we propose a non-exchangeable, individual-based, point mutation model of diversification, where interspecific pairwise competition is only felt from the part of individuals belonging to younger species. As the initial (meta)population size grows to infinity, the properly rescaled dynamics of species lineages converge to a one-parameter family of coalescent trees interpolating between the caterpillar tree and the Kingman coalescent.

Keywords: ultrametric tree, inference, phylogenetic tree, phylogeny, birth-death process, population dynamics, evolution
A popular line of research in evolutionary biology is to use time-calibrated phylogenies in order to infer the underlying diversification process. This involves the use of stochastic models of ultrametric trees, i.e., trees whose tips lie at the same distance from the root. We recast some well-known models of ultrametric trees (infinite regular trees, exchangeable coalescents, coalescent point processes) in the framework of so-called comb metric ...

60J80 ; 60J85 ; 92D15 ; 92D25 ; 54E45 ; 54E70

An endomorphism of a finitely generated free group naturally descends to an injective endomorphism on the stable quotient. We establish a geometric incarnation of this fact : an expanding irreducible train track map inducing an endomorphism of the fundamental group determines an expanding irreducible train track representative of the injective endomorphism of the stable quotient. As an application, we prove that the property of having fully irreducible monodromy for a splitting of a hyperbolic free-by-cyclic group G depends only on the component of the BNS invariant $\sum \left ( G \right )$ containing the associated homomorphism to the integers. In particular, it follows that if G is the mapping torus of an atoroidal fully irreducible automorphism of a free group and if the union of $\sum \left ( G \right ) $ and $\sum \left ( G \right )$ is connected then for every splitting of $G$ as a (f.g. free)-by-(infinite cyclic) group the monodromy is fully irreducible.
This talk is based on joint work with Spencer Dowdall and Christopher Leininger.
An endomorphism of a finitely generated free group naturally descends to an injective endomorphism on the stable quotient. We establish a geometric incarnation of this fact : an expanding irreducible train track map inducing an endomorphism of the fundamental group determines an expanding irreducible train track representative of the injective endomorphism of the stable quotient. As an application, we prove that the property of having fully ...

20F65 ; 57Mxx ; 37BXX ; 37Dxx

Post-edited  Coloring graphs on surfaces
Esperet, Louis (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

Post-edited  Which geodesic flows are left-handed?
Dehornoy, Pierre (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

Left-handed flows are 3-dimensional flows which have a particular topological property, namely that every pair of periodic orbits is negatively linked. This property (introduced by Ghys in 2007) implies the existence of as many Bikrhoff sections as possible, and therefore allows to reduce the flow to a suspension in many different ways. It then becomes natural to look for examples. A construction of Birkhoff (1917) suggests that geodesic flows are good candidates. In this conference we determine on which hyperbolic orbifolds is the geodesic flow left-handed: the answer is that yes if the surface is a sphere with three cone points, and no otherwise.
dynamical system - geodesic flow - knot - periodic orbit - global section - linking number - fibered knot
Left-handed flows are 3-dimensional flows which have a particular topological property, namely that every pair of periodic orbits is negatively linked. This property (introduced by Ghys in 2007) implies the existence of as many Bikrhoff sections as possible, and therefore allows to reduce the flow to a suspension in many different ways. It then becomes natural to look for examples. A construction of Birkhoff (1917) suggests that geodesic flows ...

37C27 ; 37C15 ; 37C10 ; 57M25

Le troisième groupe de cohomologie non ramifiée d'une variété lisse, à coefficients dans les racines de l'unité tordues deux fois, intervient dans plusieurs articles récents, en particulier en relation avec le groupe de Chow de codimension 2. On fera un tour d'horizon : espaces homogènes de groupes algébriques linéaires; variétés rationnellement connexes sur les complexes; images d'applications cycle sur les complexes, sur un corps fini, sur un corps de nombres. Le troisième groupe de cohomologie non ramifiée d'une variété lisse, à coefficients dans les racines de l'unité tordues deux fois, intervient dans plusieurs articles récents, en particulier en relation avec le groupe de Chow de codimension 2. On fera un tour d'horizon : espaces homogènes de groupes algébriques linéaires; variétés rationnellement connexes sur les complexes; images d'applications cycle sur les complexes, sur un corps fini, sur un ...

19E15 ; 14C35 ; 14C25 ; 14E08

An oriented manifold possesses an L-homology fundamental class which is an integral refinement of its Hirzebruch L-class and assembles to the symmetric signature. In joint work with Gerd Laures and James McClure, we give a construction of such an L-homology fundamental class for those oriented singular spaces, which are integral intersection homology Poincaré spaces. Our approach constructs a morphism of ad theories from intersection Poincaré bordism to L-theory. We shall indicate an application to the stratified Novikov conjecture. The latter has been treated analytically by Albin, Leichtnam, Mazzeo and Piazza. An oriented manifold possesses an L-homology fundamental class which is an integral refinement of its Hirzebruch L-class and assembles to the symmetric signature. In joint work with Gerd Laures and James McClure, we give a construction of such an L-homology fundamental class for those oriented singular spaces, which are integral intersection homology Poincaré spaces. Our approach constructs a morphism of ad theories from intersection Poincaré ...

55N33 ; 57R67 ; 57R20 ; 57N80 ; 19G24

Multi angle  Pseudo-Anosov braids are generic
Wiest, Bert (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

We prove that generic elements of braid groups are pseudo-Anosov, in the following sense: in the Cayley graph of the braid group with $n\geq 3$ strands, with respect to Garside's generating set, we prove that the proportion of pseudo-Anosov braids in the ball of radius $l$ tends to $1$ exponentially quickly as $l$ tends to infinity. Moreover, with a similar notion of genericity, we prove that for generic pairs of elements of the braid group, the conjugacy search problem can be solved in quadratic time. The idea behind both results is that generic braids can be conjugated ''easily'' into a rigid braid.
braid groups - Garside groups - Nielsen-Thurston classification - pseudo-Anosov - conjugacy problem
We prove that generic elements of braid groups are pseudo-Anosov, in the following sense: in the Cayley graph of the braid group with $n\geq 3$ strands, with respect to Garside's generating set, we prove that the proportion of pseudo-Anosov braids in the ball of radius $l$ tends to $1$ exponentially quickly as $l$ tends to infinity. Moreover, with a similar notion of genericity, we prove that for generic pairs of elements of the braid group, the ...

20F36 ; 20F10 ; 20F65

Let $\mathfrak{h}$ be a finite dimensional real Leibniz algebra. Exactly as the linear dual space of a Lie algebra is a Poisson manifold with respect to the Kostant-Kirillov-Souriau (KKS) bracket, $\mathfrak{h}^*$ can be viewed as a generalized Poisson manifold. The corresponding bracket is roughly speaking the evaluation of the KKS bracket at $0$ in one variable. This (perhaps strange looking) bracket comes up naturally when quantizing $\mathfrak{h}^*$ in an analoguous way as one quantizes the dual of a Lie algebra. Namely, the product $X \vartriangleleft Y = exp(ad_X)(Y)$ can be lifted to cotangent level and gives than a symplectic micromorphism which can be quantized by Fourier integral operators. This is joint work with Benoit Dherin (2013). More recently, we developed with Charles Alexandre, Martin Bordemann and Salim Rivire a purely algebraic framework which gives the same star-product. Let $\mathfrak{h}$ be a finite dimensional real Leibniz algebra. Exactly as the linear dual space of a Lie algebra is a Poisson manifold with respect to the Kostant-Kirillov-Souriau (KKS) bracket, $\mathfrak{h}^*$ can be viewed as a generalized Poisson manifold. The corresponding bracket is roughly speaking the evaluation of the KKS bracket at $0$ in one variable. This (perhaps strange looking) bracket comes up naturally when quantizing ...

53D55 ; 22Exx ; 81R60 ; 17A32

There are already too many introductory articles on Khovanov homology and certainly another is not needed. On the other hand by now - 15 years after the invention of subject - it is quite easy to get lost after having taken those first few steps. What could be useful is a rough guide to some of the developments over that time and the summer school Quantum Topology at the CIRM in Luminy has provided the ideal opportunity for thinking about what such a guide should look like. It is quite a risky undertaking because it is all too easy to offend by omission, misrepresentation or other. I have not attempted a complete literature survey and inevitably these notes reflects my personal view, jaundiced as it may often be. My apologies for any offence caused. I would like to express my warm thanks to Lukas Lewark, Alex Shumakovitch,Liam Watson and Ben Webster. There are already too many introductory articles on Khovanov homology and certainly another is not needed. On the other hand by now - 15 years after the invention of subject - it is quite easy to get lost after having taken those first few steps. What could be useful is a rough guide to some of the developments over that time and the summer school Quantum Topology at the CIRM in Luminy has provided the ideal opportunity for thinking about what ...

There are already too many introductory articles on Khovanov homology and certainly another is not needed. On the other hand by now - 15 years after the invention of subject - it is quite easy to get lost after having taken those first few steps. What could be useful is a rough guide to some of the developments over that time and the summer school Quantum Topology at the CIRM in Luminy has provided the ideal opportunity for thinking about what such a guide should look like.
It is quite a risky undertaking because it is all too easy to offend by omission, misrepresentation or other. I have not attempted a complete literature survey and inevitably these notes reflects my personal view, jaundiced as it may often be. My apologies for any offence caused.
I would like to express my warm thanks to Lukas Lewark, Alex Shumakovitch, Liam Watson and Ben Webster.
There are already too many introductory articles on Khovanov homology and certainly another is not needed. On the other hand by now - 15 years after the invention of subject - it is quite easy to get lost after having taken those first few steps. What could be useful is a rough guide to some of the developments over that time and the summer school Quantum Topology at the CIRM in Luminy has provided the ideal opportunity for thinking about what ...

There are already too many introductory articles on Khovanov homology and certainly another is not needed. On the other hand by now - 15 years after the invention of subject - it is quite easy to get lost after having taken those first few steps. What could be useful is a rough guide to some of the developments over that time and the summer school Quantum Topology at the CIRM in Luminy has provided the ideal opportunity for thinking about what such a guide should look like.
It is quite a risky undertaking because it is all too easy to offend by omission, misrepresentation or other. I have not attempted a complete literature survey and inevitably these notes reflects my personal view, jaundiced as it may often be. My apologies for any offence caused.
I would like to express my warm thanks to Lukas Lewark, Alex Shumakovitch, Liam Watson and Ben Webster.
There are already too many introductory articles on Khovanov homology and certainly another is not needed. On the other hand by now - 15 years after the invention of subject - it is quite easy to get lost after having taken those first few steps. What could be useful is a rough guide to some of the developments over that time and the summer school Quantum Topology at the CIRM in Luminy has provided the ideal opportunity for thinking about what ...

Multi angle  Variations on an example of Hirzebruch
Stover, Matthew (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

In '84, Hirzebruch constructed a very explicit noncompact ball quotient manifold in the process of constructing smooth projective surfaces with Chern slope arbitrarily close to 3. I will discuss how this and some closely related ball quotients are useful in answering a variety of other questions. Some of this is joint with Luca Di Cerbo.

14M27 ; 32Q45 ; 57M50

According to a widely accepted terminology, a topological insulator is a (independent) Fermion system which has surface modes that are not exposed to Anderson localization. This stability results from topological constraints given by non-trivial invariants like non-commutative Chern numbers and higher winding numbers, but sometimes also more subtle Z2 invariants associated to adequate Fredholm operators with symmetries. Prime examples are quantum Hall systems, but the talk also considers chiral and BdG systems as well as time-reversal symmetric systems with Z2 invariants. According to a widely accepted terminology, a topological insulator is a (independent) Fermion system which has surface modes that are not exposed to Anderson localization. This stability results from topological constraints given by non-trivial invariants like non-commutative Chern numbers and higher winding numbers, but sometimes also more subtle Z2 invariants associated to adequate Fredholm operators with symmetries. Prime examples are ...

Multi angle  $L^2$-cohomology and the theory of weights
Saper, Leslie (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

The intersection cohomology of a complex projective variety $X$ agrees with the usual cohomology if $X$ is smooth and satisfies Poincare duality even if $X$ is singular. It has been proven in various contexts (and conjectured in more) that the intersection cohomology may be represented by the $L^2$- cohomology of a Kähler metric defined on the smooth locus of $X$. The various proofs, though different, often depend on a notion of weight which manifests itself either through representation theory, Hodge theory, or metrical decay. In this talk we discuss the relations between these notions of weight and report on new work in this direction. The intersection cohomology of a complex projective variety $X$ agrees with the usual cohomology if $X$ is smooth and satisfies Poincare duality even if $X$ is singular. It has been proven in various contexts (and conjectured in more) that the intersection cohomology may be represented by the $L^2$- cohomology of a Kähler metric defined on the smooth locus of $X$. The various proofs, though different, often depend on a notion of weight which ...

14F43 ; 55N33

I will explain how one can get a complete description of the correlation spectrum of a Morse-Smale flow in terms of the Lyapunov exponents and of the periods of the flow. I will also discuss the relation of these results with differential topology.
This a joint work with Nguyen Viet Dang (Université Lyon 1).

37D15 ; 58J51 ; 37D40

Let $\overline{M_{g,n}}$ be the moduli space of stable curves of genus $g$ with $n$ marked points. It is a classical problem in algebraic geometry to determine which of these spaces are rational over $\mathbb{C}$. In this talk, based on joint work with Mathieu Florence, I will address the rationality problem for twisted forms of $\overline{M_{g,n}}$ . Twisted forms of $\overline{M_{g,n}}$ are of interest because they shed light on the arithmetic geometry of $\overline{M_{g,n}}$, and because they are coarse moduli spaces for natural moduli problems in their own right. A classical result of Yu. I. Manin and P. Swinnerton-Dyer asserts that every form of $\overline{M_{0,5}}$ is rational. (Recall that the $F$-forms $\overline{M_{0,5}}$ are precisely the del Pezzo surfaces of degree 5 defined over $F$.) Mathieu Florence and I have proved the following generalization of this result.
Let $ n\geq 5$ is an integer, and $F$ is an infinite field of characteristic $\neq$ 2.
(a) If $ n$ is odd, then every twisted $F$-form of $\overline{M_{0,n}}$ is rational over $F$.
(b) If $n$ is even, there exists a field extension $F/k$ and a twisted $F$-form of $\overline{M_{0,n}}$ which is unirational but not retract rational over $F$.
We also have similar results for forms of $\overline{M_{g,n}}$ , where $g \leq 5$ (for small $n$ ). In the talk, I will survey the geometric results we need about $\overline{M_{g,n}}$ , explain how our problem reduces to the Noether problem for certain twisted goups, and how this Noether problem can (sometimes) be solved.

Keywords: rationality - moduli spaces of marked curves - Galois cohomology - Noether's problem
Let $\overline{M_{g,n}}$ be the moduli space of stable curves of genus $g$ with $n$ marked points. It is a classical problem in algebraic geometry to determine which of these spaces are rational over $\mathbb{C}$. In this talk, based on joint work with Mathieu Florence, I will address the rationality problem for twisted forms of $\overline{M_{g,n}}$ . Twisted forms of $\overline{M_{g,n}}$ are of interest because they shed light on the ...

14E08 ; 14H10 ; 20G15

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