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Topology  | enregistrements trouvés : 37

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An oriented manifold possesses an L-homology fundamental class which is an integral refinement of its Hirzebruch L-class and assembles to the symmetric signature. In joint work with Gerd Laures and James McClure, we give a construction of such an L-homology fundamental class for those oriented singular spaces, which are integral intersection homology Poincaré spaces. Our approach constructs a morphism of ad theories from intersection Poincaré bordism to L-theory. We shall indicate an application to the stratified Novikov conjecture. The latter has been treated analytically by Albin, Leichtnam, Mazzeo and Piazza. An oriented manifold possesses an L-homology fundamental class which is an integral refinement of its Hirzebruch L-class and assembles to the symmetric signature. In joint work with Gerd Laures and James McClure, we give a construction of such an L-homology fundamental class for those oriented singular spaces, which are integral intersection homology Poincaré spaces. Our approach constructs a morphism of ad theories from intersection Poincaré ...

55N33 ; 57R67 ; 57R20 ; 57N80 ; 19G24

Le troisième groupe de cohomologie non ramifiée d'une variété lisse, à coefficients dans les racines de l'unité tordues deux fois, intervient dans plusieurs articles récents, en particulier en relation avec le groupe de Chow de codimension 2. On fera un tour d'horizon : espaces homogènes de groupes algébriques linéaires; variétés rationnellement connexes sur les complexes; images d'applications cycle sur les complexes, sur un corps fini, sur un corps de nombres. Le troisième groupe de cohomologie non ramifiée d'une variété lisse, à coefficients dans les racines de l'unité tordues deux fois, intervient dans plusieurs articles récents, en particulier en relation avec le groupe de Chow de codimension 2. On fera un tour d'horizon : espaces homogènes de groupes algébriques linéaires; variétés rationnellement connexes sur les complexes; images d'applications cycle sur les complexes, sur un corps fini, sur un ...

19E15 ; 14C35 ; 14C25 ; 14E08

Post-edited  Which geodesic flows are left-handed?
Dehornoy, Pierre (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

Left-handed flows are 3-dimensional flows which have a particular topological property, namely that every pair of periodic orbits is negatively linked. This property (introduced by Ghys in 2007) implies the existence of as many Bikrhoff sections as possible, and therefore allows to reduce the flow to a suspension in many different ways. It then becomes natural to look for examples. A construction of Birkhoff (1917) suggests that geodesic flows are good candidates. In this conference we determine on which hyperbolic orbifolds is the geodesic flow left-handed: the answer is that yes if the surface is a sphere with three cone points, and no otherwise.
dynamical system - geodesic flow - knot - periodic orbit - global section - linking number - fibered knot
Left-handed flows are 3-dimensional flows which have a particular topological property, namely that every pair of periodic orbits is negatively linked. This property (introduced by Ghys in 2007) implies the existence of as many Bikrhoff sections as possible, and therefore allows to reduce the flow to a suspension in many different ways. It then becomes natural to look for examples. A construction of Birkhoff (1917) suggests that geodesic flows ...

37C27 ; 37C15 ; 37C10 ; 57M25

Post-edited  Coloring graphs on surfaces
Esperet, Louis (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

An endomorphism of a finitely generated free group naturally descends to an injective endomorphism on the stable quotient. We establish a geometric incarnation of this fact : an expanding irreducible train track map inducing an endomorphism of the fundamental group determines an expanding irreducible train track representative of the injective endomorphism of the stable quotient. As an application, we prove that the property of having fully irreducible monodromy for a splitting of a hyperbolic free-by-cyclic group G depends only on the component of the BNS invariant $\sum \left ( G \right )$ containing the associated homomorphism to the integers. In particular, it follows that if G is the mapping torus of an atoroidal fully irreducible automorphism of a free group and if the union of $\sum \left ( G \right ) $ and $\sum \left ( G \right )$ is connected then for every splitting of $G$ as a (f.g. free)-by-(infinite cyclic) group the monodromy is fully irreducible.
This talk is based on joint work with Spencer Dowdall and Christopher Leininger.
An endomorphism of a finitely generated free group naturally descends to an injective endomorphism on the stable quotient. We establish a geometric incarnation of this fact : an expanding irreducible train track map inducing an endomorphism of the fundamental group determines an expanding irreducible train track representative of the injective endomorphism of the stable quotient. As an application, we prove that the property of having fully ...

20F65 ; 57Mxx ; 37BXX ; 37Dxx

A popular line of research in evolutionary biology is to use time-calibrated phylogenies in order to infer the underlying diversification process. This involves the use of stochastic models of ultrametric trees, i.e., trees whose tips lie at the same distance from the root. We recast some well-known models of ultrametric trees (infinite regular trees, exchangeable coalescents, coalescent point processes) in the framework of so-called comb metric spaces and give some applications of coalescent point processes to the phylogeny of bird species.

However, these models of diversification assume that species are exchangeable particles, and this always leads to the same (Yule) tree shape in distribution. Here, we propose a non-exchangeable, individual-based, point mutation model of diversification, where interspecific pairwise competition is only felt from the part of individuals belonging to younger species. As the initial (meta)population size grows to infinity, the properly rescaled dynamics of species lineages converge to a one-parameter family of coalescent trees interpolating between the caterpillar tree and the Kingman coalescent.

Keywords: ultrametric tree, inference, phylogenetic tree, phylogeny, birth-death process, population dynamics, evolution
A popular line of research in evolutionary biology is to use time-calibrated phylogenies in order to infer the underlying diversification process. This involves the use of stochastic models of ultrametric trees, i.e., trees whose tips lie at the same distance from the root. We recast some well-known models of ultrametric trees (infinite regular trees, exchangeable coalescents, coalescent point processes) in the framework of so-called comb metric ...

60J80 ; 60J85 ; 92D15 ; 92D25 ; 54E45 ; 54E70

Post-edited  Braids and Galois groups
Matzat, B. Heinrich (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

arithmetic fundamental group - Galois theory - braid groups - rigid analytic geometry - rigidity of finite groups

12F12 ; 11R32 ; 20F36 ; 20D08

I will discuss work in progress aimed towards defining contact homology using "virtual" holomorphic curve counting techniques.

37J10 ; 53D35 ; 53D40 ; 53D42 ; 53D45 ; 57R17

There are already too many introductory articles on Khovanov homology and certainly another is not needed. On the other hand by now - 15 years after the invention of subject - it is quite easy to get lost after having taken those first few steps. What could be useful is a rough guide to some of the developments over that time and the summer school Quantum Topology at the CIRM in Luminy has provided the ideal opportunity for thinking about what such a guide should look like.
It is quite a risky undertaking because it is all too easy to offend by omission, misrepresentation or other. I have not attempted a complete literature survey and inevitably these notes reflects my personal view, jaundiced as it may often be. My apologies for any offence caused.
I would like to express my warm thanks to Lukas Lewark, Alex Shumakovitch, Liam Watson and Ben Webster.
There are already too many introductory articles on Khovanov homology and certainly another is not needed. On the other hand by now - 15 years after the invention of subject - it is quite easy to get lost after having taken those first few steps. What could be useful is a rough guide to some of the developments over that time and the summer school Quantum Topology at the CIRM in Luminy has provided the ideal opportunity for thinking about what ...

57M25 ; 57M27

I will describe joint work with Thomas Kragh proving that closed exact Lagrangians in cotangent bundles are simply homotopy equivalent to the base. The main two ideas are (i) a Floer theoretic model for the Whitehead torsion of the projection from the Lagrangian to the base, and (ii) a large scale deformation of the Lagrangian which allows a computation of this torsion.

53D40 ; 55P35 ; 55P42

Reidemeister torsion was the first topological invariant that could distinguish between spaces which were homotopy equivalent but not homeomorphic. The Cheeger-Müller theorem established that the Reidemeister torsion of a closed manifold can be computed analytically. I will report on joint work with Frédéric Rochon and David Sher on finding a topological expression for the analytic torsion of a manifold with fibered cusp ends. Examples of these manifolds include most locally symmetric spaces of rank one. We establish our theorem by controlling the behavior of analytic torsion as a space degenerates to form hyperbolic cusp ends. Reidemeister torsion was the first topological invariant that could distinguish between spaces which were homotopy equivalent but not homeomorphic. The Cheeger-Müller theorem established that the Reidemeister torsion of a closed manifold can be computed analytically. I will report on joint work with Frédéric Rochon and David Sher on finding a topological expression for the analytic torsion of a manifold with fibered cusp ends. Examples of these ...

58J52 ; 58J05 ; 58J50 ; 58J35 ; 55N25 ; 55N33

Hermitian complex spaces are a large class of singular spaces that include for instance projective varieties endowed with the metric induced by the Fubini-Study metric. Many of the problems raised by Cheeger, Goresky and MacPherson in the case of complex projective varieties admit a natural extension also in this setting. The aim of this talk is to report about some recent results concerning the Hodge-Kodaira Laplacian acting on the canonical bundle of a compact Hermitian complex space. More precisely let $(X,h)$ be a compact and irreducible Hermitian complex space of complex dimension $m$. Consider the Dolbeault operator $\bar{\partial}_{m,0}$ : $L^2 \Omega^{m,0}(reg(X),h) \to L^2\Omega^{m,1}(reg(X),h)$ with domain $\Omega{_c^{m,0}}(reg(X))$ and let $\bar{\mathfrak{d}}_{m,0} : L^2 \Omega^{m,0}(reg(X),h)\to L^2\Omega^{m,1}(reg(X),h)$ be any of its closed extension. Now consider the associated Hodge-Kodaira Laplacian $\bar{\mathfrak{d}^*} \circ\bar{\mathfrak{d}}_{m,0}$ : $L^2 \Omega^{m,0}(reg(X),h)\to L^2\Omega^{m,0}(reg(X),h)$. We will show that the latter operator is discrete and we will provide an estimate for the growth of its eigenvalues. Finally we will prove some discreteness results for the Hodge-Dolbeault operator in the setting of both isolated singularities and complex projective surfaces (without assumptions on the singularities in the latter case). Hermitian complex spaces are a large class of singular spaces that include for instance projective varieties endowed with the metric induced by the Fubini-Study metric. Many of the problems raised by Cheeger, Goresky and MacPherson in the case of complex projective varieties admit a natural extension also in this setting. The aim of this talk is to report about some recent results concerning the Hodge-Kodaira Laplacian acting on the canonical ...

58J50 ; 53C55

How much cutting is needed to simplify the topology of a surface? We provide bounds for several instances of this question, for the minimum length of topologically non-trivial closed curves, pants decompositions, and cut graphs with a given combinatorial map in triangulated combinatorial surfaces (or their dual cross-metric counterpart).
Our work builds upon Riemannian systolic inequalities, which bound the minimum length of non-trivial closed curves in terms of the genus and the area of the surface. We first describe a systematic way to translate Riemannian systolic inequalities to a discrete setting, and vice-versa. This implies a conjecture by Przytycka and Przytycki from 1993, a number of new systolic inequalities in the discrete setting, and the fact that a theorem of Hutchinson on the edge-width of triangulated surfaces and Gromov's systolic inequality for surfaces are essentially equivalent. We also discuss how these proofs generalize to higher dimensions.
Then we focus on topological decompositions of surfaces. Relying on ideas of Buser, we prove the existence of pants decompositions of length $O(g^{3/2}n^{1/2})$ for any triangulated combinatorial surface of genus g with n triangles, and describe an $O(gn)$-time algorithm to compute such a decomposition.
Finally, we consider the problem of embedding a cut graph (or more generally a cellular graph) with a given combinatorial map on a given surface. Using random triangulations, we prove (essentially) that, for any choice of a combinatorial map, there are some surfaces on which any cellular embedding with that combinatorial map has length superlinear in the number of triangles of the triangulated combinatorial surface. There is also a similar result for graphs embedded on polyhedral triangulations.
systolic geometry - computational topology - topological graph theory - graphs on surfaces - triangulations - random graphs
How much cutting is needed to simplify the topology of a surface? We provide bounds for several instances of this question, for the minimum length of topologically non-trivial closed curves, pants decompositions, and cut graphs with a given combinatorial map in triangulated combinatorial surfaces (or their dual cross-metric counterpart).
Our work builds upon Riemannian systolic inequalities, which bound the minimum length of non-trivial closed ...

05C10 ; 68U05 ; 53C23 ; 57M15 ; 68R10

We give a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of infinitely many non-arithmetic Teichmuller curves in a stratum of abelian differentials. This is joint work with Simion Filip and Alex Wright.

30F30 ; 32G15 ; 32G20 ; 14D07 ; 37D25

Multi angle  Natural subgroups of automorphisms
Guirardel, Vincent (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

I will survey our common work with Gilbert Levitt about subgroups of automorphisms of hyperbolic and relatively hyperbolic groups : McCool groups, stabilizers of trees, stabilizers of subgroups.

20E07 ; 20E08

The Skorokhod space is natural for modeling trajectories of most time series with heavy tails. We give a systematic account of topologies on the Skorokhod space. The applicability of each topology is illustrated by examples of suitable dependent stationary sequences, for which the corresponding functional limit theorem holds.

60F17 ; 60G10 ; 60B10 ; 54E99

braid groups - conformal blocks - KZ equation - quantum group symmetry - hypergeometric integrals - Gauss-Manin connection

20F36 ; 32G34 ; 32S40 ; 57M07

After inverting 2, the motivic sphere spectrum splits into a plus part and a minus part with respect to a certain natural involution. Cisinsky and Déglise have shown that, with rational coefficients, the plus part is given by rational motivic cohomlogy. With Ananyevskiy and Panin, we have computed the minus part with rational coefficients as being given by rational Witt-theory. In particular, this shows that the rational bi-graded homotopy sheaves of the minus sphere are concentrated in bi-degree (n,n). This may be rephrased as saying that the graded homotopy sheaves of the minus sphere in strictly positive topological degree are torsion. Combined with the result of Cisinski-Déglise mentioned above, this shows that the graded homotopy sheaves of the sphere spectrum in strictly positive topological degree and non-negative Tate degree are torsion, an analog of the classical theorem of Serre, that the stable homotopy groups of spheres in strictly positive degree are finite. After inverting 2, the motivic sphere spectrum splits into a plus part and a minus part with respect to a certain natural involution. Cisinsky and Déglise have shown that, with rational coefficients, the plus part is given by rational motivic cohomlogy. With Ananyevskiy and Panin, we have computed the minus part with rational coefficients as being given by rational Witt-theory. In particular, this shows that the rational bi-graded homotopy ...

14C25 ; 14F42

As a counterpart to Deroin's minicourse, we discuss actions of groups on the circle in the C0 setting. Here, many dynamical properties of an action can be encoded by the algebraic data of a left-invariant circular order on the group. I will highlight rigidity and flexibility phenomena among group actions, and discuss new work with C. Rivas relating these to the natural topology on the space of circular orders on a group.

58D05 ; 37E30 ; 57S05 ; 20F60

Multi angle  Embedding extension problems
Mohar, Bojan (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

Nuage de mots clefs ici

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