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Documents : Post-edited  Conférences Vidéo Chapitrées | enregistrements trouvés : 187

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We present heuristics that suggest that there is a uniform bound on the rank of $E(\mathbb{Q})$ as $E$ varies over all elliptic curves over $\mathbb{Q}$. This is joint work with Jennifer Park, John Voight, and Melanie Matchett Wood.

11R29 ; 11G40 ; 11G05 ; 14H52 ; 11R45

Le principe de décision en démocratie consiste à produire, de l'expression des opinions individuelles, un consensus. Il existe de multiples procédures pour passer des unes à l'autre variant suivant les pays, les jurys... Le Président n'est pas élu de la même façon en France, aux USA ou en Irlande. Quelles seraient les procédures qui répondraient à des critères "raisonnables" de qualité ?
Des mathématiciens se sont intéressés à ce type de questions. Du paradoxe de Condorcet au théorème de Black en passant par le théorème de Arrow, leurs réponses sont parfois déconcertantes.
Le principe de décision en démocratie consiste à produire, de l'expression des opinions individuelles, un consensus. Il existe de multiples procédures pour passer des unes à l'autre variant suivant les pays, les jurys... Le Président n'est pas élu de la même façon en France, aux USA ou en Irlande. Quelles seraient les procédures qui répondraient à des critères "raisonnables" de qualité ?
Des mathématiciens se sont intéressés à ce type de ...

91B12 ; 91B08 ; 91B14 ; 91F10

Post-edited  Interview au CIRM : Etienne Ghys
Ghys, Etienne (Personne interviewée) | CIRM (Editeur )

Etienne Ghys is a French mathematician. His research focuses mainly on geometry and dynamical systems, though his mathematical interests are broad. He also expresses much interest in the historical development of mathematical ideas, especially the contribution of Henri Poincaré. He co-authored the computer graphics mathematical movie Dimensions: A walk through mathematics! Alumnus of the École Normale Supérieure de Saint-Cloud, he is currently a CNRS "directeur de recherche" at the École Normale Supérieure in Lyon. He is also editor-in-chief of the Publications Mathématiques de l'IHÉS and a member of the French Academy of Sciences. Etienne Ghys is a French mathematician. His research focuses mainly on geometry and dynamical systems, though his mathematical interests are broad. He also expresses much interest in the historical development of mathematical ideas, especially the contribution of Henri Poincaré. He co-authored the computer graphics mathematical movie Dimensions: A walk through mathematics! Alumnus of the École Normale Supérieure de Saint-Cloud, he is currently a ...

Pierre-Louis LIONS a participé au mois thématique 2013 au CIRM consacré aux probabilités.
Médaille Fields 1994, Pierre-Louis LIONS est le fils du mathématicien Jacques-Louis Lions. Reçu major à Polytechnique et à l'ENS, Pierre-Louis Lions entre à l'École normale supérieure (Paris) en 1975. Refusant de passer l'agrégation de mathématiques, il préfère se consacrer à la recherche en mathématiques appliquées et obtient son doctorat, dirigé par Haïm Brézis, en 1979 à l'Université Pierre-et-Marie-Curie. De 1979 à 1981, il poursuit ses recherches au CNRS puis devient professeur à l'université de Paris-Dauphine. Pierre-Louis Lions est professeur de mathématiques appliquées à l'École polytechnique depuis 1992 et professeur invité au Conservatoire national des arts et métiers en 2000. Il est nommé professeur au Collège de France en 2002, où il est titulaire de la chaire « Équations aux dérivées partielles et applications ».
Les travaux mathématiques de Pierre-Louis Lions portent sur la théorie des équations différentielles partielles non linéaires. On lui doit notamment un travail conjoint avec M. G. Crandall sur les solutions de viscosité des équations de Hamilton-Jacobi, des avancées sur l'équation de Boltzmann et l'équation de Navier-Stokes, et le très célèbre principe de concentration-compacité. Depuis 2006, les travaux de Pierre-Louis Lions, ainsi que ses cours au Collège de France, portent sur la théorie des jeux à champ moyen qu'il a développée avec Jean-Michel Lasry.
En septembre 2006, il a été nommé membre du Haut conseil de la science et de la technologie.
En 2009, il est nommé président du conseil d'administration de l'École normale supérieure en remplacement du conseiller d'État Jean-Claude Mallet.
Il a encadré de nombreuses thèses dont celle de Cédric Villani, lauréat de la médaille Fields en 2010.
Pierre-Louis LIONS a participé au mois thématique 2013 au CIRM consacré aux probabilités.
Médaille Fields 1994, Pierre-Louis LIONS est le fils du mathématicien Jacques-Louis Lions. Reçu major à Polytechnique et à l'ENS, Pierre-Louis Lions entre à l'École normale supérieure (Paris) en 1975. Refusant de passer l'agrégation de mathématiques, il préfère se consacrer à la recherche en mathématiques appliquées et obtient son doctorat, dirigé par Haïm ...

Post-edited  Interview at CIRM: Terry Lyons
Lyons, Terry (Personne interviewée) | CIRM (Editeur )

In 2013, probability was the key subject of the thematic month, Terry J LYONS took part in the conference dedicated to French mathematician Etienne PARDOUX in celebration of his 65th birthday. An opportunity for us to look into the areas of mathematics that LYONS, a famous British mathematician, chooses to concentrate on... Interview.

Post-edited  Interview au CIRM : Nicola Kistler
Kistler, Nicola (Personne interviewée) | CIRM (Editeur )

Swiss-born mathematician Nicola Kistler was the first holder of the Jean-Morlet Chair for mathematical sciences at CIRM and, in that capacity, became the first visiting researcher in residence for six months at the Centre. His stay at CIRM lasted from early February till July 2013. He set up a program of mathematical events focusing on 'Probability', with the collaboration of Véronique Gayrard, local project leader working at Marseille's Laboratoire d'Analyse, Topologie, Probabilités (ex LATP - now I2M).
CIRM - Jean-Morlet Chair on 'Probability'
Swiss-born mathematician Nicola Kistler was the first holder of the Jean-Morlet Chair for mathematical sciences at CIRM and, in that capacity, became the first visiting researcher in residence for six months at the Centre. His stay at CIRM lasted from early February till July 2013. He set up a program of mathematical events focusing on 'Probability', with the collaboration of Véronique Gayrard, local project leader working at Marseille's ...

Post-edited  Interview at CIRM: Inkang Kim
Kim, Inkang (Personne interviewée) | CIRM (Editeur )

Inkang Kim works on hyperbolic geometry and symmetric spaces. He works on rigidity and flexibility of discrete groups acting on symmetric spaces. For rigidity side, he proved the marked length rigidity of Zariski dense subgroups of semisimple Lie groups. In the line of Weil's local rigidity, with his collaborators he proved the local rigidity of real and complex hyperbolic lattices in quaternionic hyperbolic spaces. For flexibility side, with Pierre Pansu he characterized the criterion for a deformability to a Zariski dense representation of a surface group representation in semisimple Lie groups. Specially in hyperbolic 3-manifolds, with other collaborators he generalized William Thurston's double limit theorem to any hyperbolic 3-manifold with compressible boundary. Inkang Kim works on hyperbolic geometry and symmetric spaces. He works on rigidity and flexibility of discrete groups acting on symmetric spaces. For rigidity side, he proved the marked length rigidity of Zariski dense subgroups of semisimple Lie groups. In the line of Weil's local rigidity, with his collaborators he proved the local rigidity of real and complex hyperbolic lattices in quaternionic hyperbolic spaces. For flexibility side, with ...

Everything is under control: mathematics optimize everyday life.
In an empirical way we are able to do many things with more or less efficiency or success. When one wants to achieve a parallel parking, consequences may sometimes be ridiculous... But when one wants to launch a rocket or plan interplanetary missions, better is to be sure of what we do.
Control theory is a branch of mathematics that allows to control, optimize and guide systems on which one can act by means of a control, like for example a car, a robot, a space shuttle, a chemical reaction or in more general a process that one aims at steering to some desired target state.
Emmanuel Trélat will overview the range of applications of that theory through several examples, sometimes funny, but also historical. He will show you that the study of simple cases of our everyday life, far from insignificant, allow to approach problems like the orbit transfer or interplanetary mission design.
control theory - optimal control - stabilization - optimization - aerospace - Lagrange points - dynamical systems - mission design
Everything is under control: mathematics optimize everyday life.
In an empirical way we are able to do many things with more or less efficiency or success. When one wants to achieve a parallel parking, consequences may sometimes be ridiculous... But when one wants to launch a rocket or plan interplanetary missions, better is to be sure of what we do.
Control theory is a branch of mathematics that allows to control, optimize and guide systems on ...

49J15 ; 93B40 ; 93B27 ; 93B50 ; 65H20 ; 90C31 ; 37N05 ; 37N35

The most important works of the young Lagrange were two very learned memoirs on sound and its propagation. In a tour de force of mathematical analysis, he solved the relevant partial differential equations in a novel manner and he applied the solutions to a number of acoustic problems. Although Euler and d'Alembert may have been the only contemporaries who fully appreciated these memoirs, their contents anticipated much more of Fourier analysis than is usually believed. On the physical side, Lagrange properly explained the functioning of string and air-column instruments, although he did not accept harmonic analysis as we now understand it.
Lagrange - acoustics - propagation of sound - harmonic analysis - Fourier analysis - vibrating strings - organ pipes
The most important works of the young Lagrange were two very learned memoirs on sound and its propagation. In a tour de force of mathematical analysis, he solved the relevant partial differential equations in a novel manner and he applied the solutions to a number of acoustic problems. Although Euler and d'Alembert may have been the only contemporaries who fully appreciated these memoirs, their contents anticipated much more of Fourier analysis ...

01A50 ; 35-03 ; 40-03 ; 76-03

Mathematical modeling and numerical mathematics of today is very much Lagrangian and modern automated modeling techniques lead to differential-algebraic systems. The optimal control for such systems in general cannot be obtained using the classical Euler-Lagrange approach or the maximum principle, but it is shown how this approach can be extended.
differential-algebraic equations - optimal control - Lagrangian subspace - necessary optimality conditions - Hamiltonian system - symplectic flow
Mathematical modeling and numerical mathematics of today is very much Lagrangian and modern automated modeling techniques lead to differential-algebraic systems. The optimal control for such systems in general cannot be obtained using the classical Euler-Lagrange approach or the maximum principle, but it is shown how this approach can be extended.
differential-algebraic equations - optimal control - Lagrangian subspace - necessary optimality ...

93C05 ; 93C15 ; 49K15 ; 34H05

I will describe a recent framework for robust shape reconstruction based on optimal transportation between measures, where the input measurements are seen as distribution of masses. In addition to robustness to defect-laden point sets (hampered with noise and outliers), this approach can reconstruct smooth closed shapes as well as piecewise smooth shapes with boundaries.

68Rxx ; 65D17 ; 65D18

I will discuss recent progress on understanding the dimension of self-similar sets and measures. The main conjecture in this field is that the only way that the dimension of such a fractal can be "non-full" is if the semigroup of contractions which define it is not free. The result I will discuss is that "non-full" dimension implies "almost non-freeness", in the sense that there are distinct words in the semigroup which are extremely close together (super-exponentially in their lengths). Applications include resolution of some conjectures of Furstenberg on the dimension of sumsets and, together with work of Shmerkin, progress on the absolute continuity of Bernoulli convolutions. The main new ingredient is a statement in additive combinatorics concerning the structure of measures whose entropy does not grow very much under convolution. If time permits I will discuss the analogous results in higher dimensions. I will discuss recent progress on understanding the dimension of self-similar sets and measures. The main conjecture in this field is that the only way that the dimension of such a fractal can be "non-full" is if the semigroup of contractions which define it is not free. The result I will discuss is that "non-full" dimension implies "almost non-freeness", in the sense that there are distinct words in the semigroup which are extremely close ...

28A80 ; 37A10 ; 03D99 ; 54H20

In this talk, we investigate in a unified way the structural properties of a large class of convex regularizers for linear inverse problems. These penalty functionals are crucial to force the regularized solution to conform to some notion of simplicity/low complexity. Classical priors of this kind includes sparsity, piecewise regularity and low-rank. These are natural assumptions for many applications, ranging from medical imaging to machine learning.
imaging - image processing - sparsity - convex optimization - inverse problem - super-resolution
In this talk, we investigate in a unified way the structural properties of a large class of convex regularizers for linear inverse problems. These penalty functionals are crucial to force the regularized solution to conform to some notion of simplicity/low complexity. Classical priors of this kind includes sparsity, piecewise regularity and low-rank. These are natural assumptions for many applications, ranging from medical imaging to machine ...

62H35 ; 65D18 ; 94A08 ; 68U10 ; 90C31 ; 80M50 ; 47N10

We review basic properties of the moment-LP and moment-SOS hierarchies for polynomial optimization and compare them. We also illustrate how to use such a methodology in two applications outside optimization. Namely :
- for approximating (as claosely as desired in a strong sens) set defined with quantifiers of the form
$R_1 =\{ x\in B : f(x,y)\leq 0 $ for all $y$ such that $(x,y) \in K \}$.
$D_1 =\{ x\in B : f(x,y)\leq 0 $ for some $y$ such that $(x,y) \in K \}$.
by a hierarchy of inner sublevel set approximations
$\Theta_k = \left \{ x\in B : J_k(x)\leq 0 \right \}\subset R_f$.
or outer sublevel set approximations
$\Theta_k = \left \{ x\in B : J_k(x)\leq 0 \right \}\supset D_f$.
for some polynomiales $(J_k)$ of increasing degree :
- for computing convex polynomial underestimators of a given polynomial $f$ on a box $B \subset R^n$.
We review basic properties of the moment-LP and moment-SOS hierarchies for polynomial optimization and compare them. We also illustrate how to use such a methodology in two applications outside optimization. Namely :
- for approximating (as claosely as desired in a strong sens) set defined with quantifiers of the form
$R_1 =\{ x\in B : f(x,y)\leq 0 $ for all $y$ such that $(x,y) \in K \}$.
$D_1 =\{ x\in B : f(x,y)\leq 0 $ for ...

44A60 ; 90C22

Post-edited  My favorite groups
Ghys, Etienne (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

The world of groups is vast and meant for wandering! During this week, I will give seven short talks describing seven groups, or class of groups, that I find fascinating. These seven talks will be independent and I will have no intention of being exhaustive (this would be silly since there are uncountably many groups, even finitely generated!). In each talk, I will introduce the hero, state one or two results, and formulate one or two conjectures. The world of groups is vast and meant for wandering! During this week, I will give seven short talks describing seven groups, or class of groups, that I find fascinating. These seven talks will be independent and I will have no intention of being exhaustive (this would be silly since there are uncountably many groups, even finitely generated!). In each talk, I will introduce the hero, state one or two results, and formulate one or two c...

57S30 ; 58D05

La décomposition par substitution des permutations permet de voir ces objets combinatoires comme des arbres. Je présenterai d'abord cette décomposition par substitution, et les arbres sous-jacents, appelés arbres de décomposition. Puis j'exposerai une méthode, complètement algorithmique et reposant sur les arbres de décomposition, qui permet de calculer des spécifications combinatoires de classes de permutations à motifs interdits. La connaissance de telles spécifications combinatoires ouvre de nouvelles perspectives pour l'étude des classes de permutations, que je présenterai en conclusion. La décomposition par substitution des permutations permet de voir ces objets combinatoires comme des arbres. Je présenterai d'abord cette décomposition par substitution, et les arbres sous-jacents, appelés arbres de décomposition. Puis j'exposerai une méthode, complètement algorithmique et reposant sur les arbres de décomposition, qui permet de calculer des spécifications combinatoires de classes de permutations à motifs interdits. La c...

68-06 ; 05A05

I will present results on the dynamics of horocyclic flows on the unit tangent bundle of hyperbolic surfaces, density and equidistribution properties in particular. I will focus on infinite volume hyperbolic surfaces. My aim is to show how these properties are related to dynamical properties of geodesic flows, as product structure, ergodicity, mixing, ...

37D40

Rational points on smooth projective curves of genus $g \ge 2$ over number fields are in finite number thanks to a theorem of Faltings from 1983. The same result was known over function fields of positive characteristic since 1966 thanks to a theorem of Samuel. The aim of the talk is to give a bound as uniform as possible on this number for curves defined over such fields. In a first part we will report on a result by Rémond concerning the number field case and on a way to strengthen it assuming a height conjecture. During the second part we will focus on function fields of positive characteristic and describe a new result obtained in a joined work with Pacheco. Rational points on smooth projective curves of genus $g \ge 2$ over number fields are in finite number thanks to a theorem of Faltings from 1983. The same result was known over function fields of positive characteristic since 1966 thanks to a theorem of Samuel. The aim of the talk is to give a bound as uniform as possible on this number for curves defined over such fields. In a first part we will report on a result by Rémond concerning the ...

14G05 ; 11G35

Post-edited  On Schmidt's subspace theorem
Evertse, Jan-Hendrik (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

Last year, I published together with Roberto Ferretti a new version of the quantitative subspace theorem, giving a better upper bound for the number of subspaces containing the solutions of the system of inequalities involved. In my lecture, I would like to discuss this improvement, and go into some aspects of its proof.

11J13 ; 11J68

We discuss the distribution of the trace of a random matrix in the compact Lie group USp2g, with the normalized Haar measure. According to the generalized Sato-Tate conjecture, if A is an abelian variety of dimension g defined over the rationals, the sequence of traces of Frobenius in the successive reductions of A modulo primes appears to be equidistributed with respect to this distribution. If g = 2, we provide expressions for the characteristic function, the density, and the repartition function of this distribution in terms of higher transcendental functions, namely Legendre and Meijer functions. We discuss the distribution of the trace of a random matrix in the compact Lie group USp2g, with the normalized Haar measure. According to the generalized Sato-Tate conjecture, if A is an abelian variety of dimension g defined over the rationals, the sequence of traces of Frobenius in the successive reductions of A modulo primes appears to be equidistributed with respect to this distribution. If g = 2, we provide expressions for the cha...

11G05 ; 11G10 ; 14G10 ; 37C30

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