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In his 1947 essay, Tjalling Koopmans criticized the development of an empirical science that had no theoretical basis, what he referred to as measurement without theory. The controversy over the status of relations based on mere statistical inference has not ceased since then. Instead of looking for the contemporary consequences, however, I will inquire into its early beginnings. As early as the 1900s, Walras, Pareto and Juglar exchanged views on the status of theory and its relation to economic data. These private exchanges acquired the status of scientific controversy in the aftermath of the First World War, with the dissemination of Pareto’s work. It is precisely this moment that I will try to grasp, when engineers began to read and write pure economic treatises, questioning the relation between theory and empirical problems, the nature of their project and the expectations that the subsequent development of economics has tried to fulfill.

Cournot Centre session devoted to the transformations that took place in mathematical economics during the interwar period.
In his 1947 essay, Tjalling Koopmans criticized the development of an empirical science that had no theoretical basis, what he referred to as measurement without theory. The controversy over the status of relations based on mere statistical inference has not ceased since then. Instead of looking for the contemporary consequences, however, I will inquire into its early beginnings. As early as the 1900s, Walras, Pareto and Juglar exchanged views ...

01A60 ; 62P20 ; 91BXX

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Given a fixed integer $q \geq 2$, an irrational number $\xi$ is said to be a $q$-normal number if any preassigned sequence of $k$ digits occurs in the $q$-ary expansion of $\xi$ with the expected frequency, that is $1/q^k$. In this talk, we expose new methods that allow for the construction of large families of normal numbers. This is joint work with Professor Jean-Marie De Koninck.

11N37 ; 11K16 ; 11A41

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Aim of the lecture is to give an introduction to $K3$ surfaces, that are special algebraic surfaces with an extremely rich geometry. The most easy example of such a surface is the Fermat quartic in complex three-dimensional space.
The name $K3$ was given by André Weil in 1958 in honour of the three remarkable mathematicians: Kummer, Kähler and Kodaira and of the beautiful K2 mountain at Cachemire.
The topics of the lecture are the following:

* $K3$ surfaces in the Enriques-Kodaira classification.
* Examples; Kummer surfaces.
* Basic properties of $K3$ surfaces; Torelli theorem and surjectivity of the period map.
* The study of automorphisms on $K3$ surfaces: basic facts, examples.
* Symplectic automorphisms of $K3$ surfaces, classification, moduli spaces.
Aim of the lecture is to give an introduction to $K3$ surfaces, that are special algebraic surfaces with an extremely rich geometry. The most easy example of such a surface is the Fermat quartic in complex three-dimensional space.
The name $K3$ was given by André Weil in 1958 in honour of the three remarkable mathematicians: Kummer, Kähler and Kodaira and of the beautiful K2 mountain at Cachemire.
The topics of the lecture are the following:

* ...

14J10 ; 14J28 ; 14J50 ; 14C20 ; 14C22 ; 14J27 ; 14L30

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Given an automorphism of the free group, we consider the mapping torus defined with respect to the automorphism. If the automorphism is atoroidal, then the resulting free-by-cyclic group is hyperbolic by work of Brinkmann. In addition, if the automorphism is fully irreducible, then work of Kapovich-Kleiner proves the boundary of the group is homeomorphic to the Menger curve. However, their proof is very general and gives no tools to further study the boundary and large-scale geometry of these groups. In this talk, I will explain how to construct explicit embeddings of non-planar graphs into the boundary of these groups whenever the group is hyperbolic. Along the way, I will illustrate how our methods distinguish free-by-cyclic groups which are the fundamental group of a 3-manifold. This is joint work with Yael Algom-Kfir and Arnaud Hilion.
Given an automorphism of the free group, we consider the mapping torus defined with respect to the automorphism. If the automorphism is atoroidal, then the resulting free-by-cyclic group is hyperbolic by work of Brinkmann. In addition, if the automorphism is fully irreducible, then work of Kapovich-Kleiner proves the boundary of the group is homeomorphic to the Menger curve. However, their proof is very general and gives no tools to further ...

20F65 ; 20F67 ; 20E36

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In this talk we will present a Verlinde formula for the quantization of the Higgs bundle moduli spaces and stacks for any simple and simply-connected group. We further present a Verlinde formula for the quantization of parabolic Higgs bundle moduli spaces and stacks. We will explain how all these dimensions fit into a one parameter family of 2D TQFT’s, encoded in a one parameter family of Frobenius algebras, which we will construct.

14D20 ; 14H60 ; 57R56 ; 81T40 ; 14F05 ; 14H10 ; 22E46 ; 81T45

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A new type of a simple iterated game with natural biological motivation is introduced. Two individuals are chosen at random from a population. They must survive a certain number of steps. They start together, but if one of them dies the other one tries to survive on its own. The only payoff is to survive the game. We only allow two strategies: cooperators help the other individual, while defectors do not. There is no strategic complexity. There are no conditional strategies. Depending on the number of steps we recover various forms of stringent and relaxed cooperative dilemmas. We derive conditions for the evolution of cooperation.
Specifically, we describe an iterated game between two players, in which the payoff is to survive a number of steps. Expected payoffs are probabilities of survival. A key feature of the game is that individuals have to survive on their own if their partner dies. We consider individuals with simple, unconditional strategies. When both players are present, each step is a symmetric two-player game. As the number of iterations tends to infinity, all probabilities of survival decrease to zero. We obtain general, analytical results for n-step payoffs and use these to describe how the game changes as n increases. In order to predict changes in the frequency of a cooperative strategy over time, we embed the survival game in three different models of a large, well-mixed population. Two of these models are deterministic and one is stochastic. Offspring receive their parent’s type without modification and fitnesses are determined by the game. Increasing the number of iterations changes the prospects for cooperation. All models become neutral in the limit $(n \rightarrow \infty)$. Further, if pairs of cooperative individuals survive together with high probability, specifically higher than for any other pair and for either type when it is alone, then cooperation becomes favored if the number of iterations is large enough. This holds regardless of the structure of pairwise interactions in a single step. Even if the single-step interaction is a Prisoner’s Dilemma, the cooperative type becomes favored. Enhanced survival is crucial in these iterated evolutionary games: if players in pairs start the game with a fitness deficit relative to lone individuals, the prospects for cooperation can become even worse than in the case of a single-step game.
A new type of a simple iterated game with natural biological motivation is introduced. Two individuals are chosen at random from a population. They must survive a certain number of steps. They start together, but if one of them dies the other one tries to survive on its own. The only payoff is to survive the game. We only allow two strategies: cooperators help the other individual, while defectors do not. There is no strategic complexity. There ...

91A80 ; 91A40 ; 91A22 ; 91A12 ; 91A20 ; 92D15

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In these lectures, we will review what it means for a 3-manifold to have a hyperbolic structure, and give tools to show that a manifold is hyperbolic. We will also discuss how to decompose examples of 3-manifolds, such as knot complements, into simpler pieces. We give conditions that allow us to use these simpler pieces to determine information about the hyperbolic geometry of the original manifold. Most of the tools we present were developed in the 1970s, 80s, and 90s, but continue to have modern applications.
In these lectures, we will review what it means for a 3-manifold to have a hyperbolic structure, and give tools to show that a manifold is hyperbolic. We will also discuss how to decompose examples of 3-manifolds, such as knot complements, into simpler pieces. We give conditions that allow us to use these simpler pieces to determine information about the hyperbolic geometry of the original manifold. Most of the tools we present were developed in ...

57M27 ; 57M50 ; 57M25

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We describe stable models for modular curves associated with all maximal subgroups in prime level, including in particular the new case of non-split Cartan curves.
Joint work with Bas Edixhoven.

11G18 ; 14Q05 ; 14G35 ; 11G05

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Post-edited  Singular SPDE with rough coefficients
Otto, Felix (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

We are interested in parabolic differential equations $(\partial_t-a\partial_x^2)u=f$ with a very irregular forcing $f$ and only mildly regular coefficients $a$. This is motivated by stochastic differential equations, where $f$ is random, and quasilinear equations, where $a$ is a (nonlinear) function of $u$.
Below a certain threshold for the regularity of $f$ and $a$ (on the Hölder scale), giving even a sense to this equation requires a renormalization. In the framework of the above setting, we present recent ideas from the area of stochastic differential equations (Lyons' rough path, Gubinelli's controlled rough paths, Hairer's regularity structures) that allow to build a solution theory. We make a connection with Safonov's approach to Schauder theory.
This is based on joint work with H. Weber, J. Sauer, and S. Smith.
We are interested in parabolic differential equations $(\partial_t-a\partial_x^2)u=f$ with a very irregular forcing $f$ and only mildly regular coefficients $a$. This is motivated by stochastic differential equations, where $f$ is random, and quasilinear equations, where $a$ is a (nonlinear) function of $u$.
Below a certain threshold for the regularity of $f$ and $a$ (on the Hölder scale), giving even a sense to this equation requires a ...

60H15 ; 35B65

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Hyperkähler manifolds are higher-dimensional analogs of K3 surfaces. Verbitsky and Markmann recently proved that their period map is an open embedding. In a joint work with E. Macri, we explicitly determine the image of this map in some cases. I will explain this result together with a nice application (found by Bayer and Mongardi) to the (almost complete) determination of the image of the period map for cubic fourfolds, hereby partially recovering a result of Laza.
Hyperkähler manifolds are higher-dimensional analogs of K3 surfaces. Verbitsky and Markmann recently proved that their period map is an open embedding. In a joint work with E. Macri, we explicitly determine the image of this map in some cases. I will explain this result together with a nice application (found by Bayer and Mongardi) to the (almost complete) determination of the image of the period map for cubic fourfolds, hereby partially ...

14C34 ; 14E07 ; 14J50 ; 14J60

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Let $X$ be a compact Kähler manifold. The so-called Kodaira problem asks whether $X$ has arbitrarily small deformations to some projective varieties. While Kodaira proved that such deformations always exist for surfaces. Starting from dimension 4, there are examples constructed by Voisin which answer the Kodaira problem in the negative. In this talk, we will focus on threefolds, as well as compact Kähler manifolds of algebraic dimension $a(X) = dim(X) -1$. We will explain our positive solution to the Kodaira problem for these manifolds.
Let $X$ be a compact Kähler manifold. The so-called Kodaira problem asks whether $X$ has arbitrarily small deformations to some projective varieties. While Kodaira proved that such deformations always exist for surfaces. Starting from dimension 4, there are examples constructed by Voisin which answer the Kodaira problem in the negative. In this talk, we will focus on threefolds, as well as compact Kähler manifolds of algebraic dimension $a(X) = ...

32J17 ; 32J27 ; 32J25 ; 32G05 ; 14D06 ; 14E30

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Post-edited  Of commutators and Jacobians
Hytönen, Tuomas P. (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

The boundedness (on $L^p$ spaces) of commutators $[b,T] = bT-Tb$ of pointwise multiplication $b$ and singular integral operators $T$ has been well studied for a long time. Curiously, the necessary conditions for this boundedness to happen are generally less understood than the sufficient conditions, for instance what comes to the assumptions on the operator $T$. I will discuss some new results in this direction, and show how this circle of ideas relates to the mapping properties of the Jacobian (the determinant of the derivative matrix) on first order Sobolev spaces. This is work in progress at the time of submitting the abstract, so I will hopefully be able to present some fairly fresh material.
The boundedness (on $L^p$ spaces) of commutators $[b,T] = bT-Tb$ of pointwise multiplication $b$ and singular integral operators $T$ has been well studied for a long time. Curiously, the necessary conditions for this boundedness to happen are generally less understood than the sufficient conditions, for instance what comes to the assumptions on the operator $T$. I will discuss some new results in this direction, and show how this circle of ideas ...

42B20 ; 42B35

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Graph searching, a mechanism to traverse a graph visiting one vertex at a time in a specific manner, is a powerful tool used to extract structure from various families of graphs. In this talk, we focus on two graph searches: Lexicographic Breadth First Search (LBFS), and Lexicographic Depth First Search (LDFS).
Many classes of graphs have a vertex ordering characterisation, and we review how graph searching is used to produce efficiently such vertex orderings.
These orderings expose structure that we exploit to develop efficient linear and near-linear time algorithms for some NP-hard problems (independent set, colouring, Hamiltonicity for instance) on some special classes of graphs such as cocomparability graphs.
In particular, we will prove fixed point type theorems for LexBFS, and then focus on a LexDFS-based framework to lift algorithms from interval graphs to cocomparability graphs. Then I will present the relationships between graph searches, graph geometric convexities and antimatroids. These relationships are for to be completely understood and I will pose some hard conjectures and some interesting problems to consider.
To finish I will present some recent results about Robinsonian matrices by M. Laurent and M. Seminaroti and their relationships with graph searches. This yields a new area of research to investigate.
Graph searching, a mechanism to traverse a graph visiting one vertex at a time in a specific manner, is a powerful tool used to extract structure from various families of graphs. In this talk, we focus on two graph searches: Lexicographic Breadth First Search (LBFS), and Lexicographic Depth First Search (LDFS).
Many classes of graphs have a vertex ordering characterisation, and we review how graph searching is used to produce efficiently such ...

05C85 ; 68R10

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Using Szenes formula for multiple Bernoulli series, we explain how to compute Witten series associated to classical Lie algebras. Particular instances of these series compute volumes of moduli spaces of flat bundles over surfaces, and also certain multiple zeta values.
This is joint work with V. Baldoni and M. Vergne.

11B68 ; 11M32 ; 11M41 ; 14D20 ; 17B20 ; 17B22 ; 32S22 ; 53D30

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Post-edited  Morsifications and mutations
Fomin, Sergey (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

I will discuss a connection between the topology of isolated singularities of plane curves and the mutation equivalence of the quivers associated with their morsifications. Joint work with Pavlo Pylyavskyy, Eugenii Shustin, and Dylan Thurston.

13F60 ; 20F36 ; 57M25 ; 58K65

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Post-edited  Mathematical modelling of angiogenesis
Maini, Philip (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

Tumour vascular is highly disordered and has been the subject of intense interest both clinically (anti-angiogenesis therapies) and theoretically (many models have been proposed). In this talk, I will review aspects of modelling tumour angiogenesis and how different modelling assumptions impact conclusions on oxygen delivery and, therefore, predictions on the possible effects of radiation treatments.

93A30 ; 92C50 ; 92C37 ; 92C17 ; 65C20 ; 35Q92

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Post-edited  Mahler's method in several variables
Adamczewski, Boris (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

Any algebraic (resp. linear) relation over the field of rational functions with algebraic coefficients between given analytic functions leads by specialization to algebraic (resp. linear) relations over the field of algebraic numbers between the values of these functions. Number theorists have long been interested in proving results going in the other direction. Though the converse result is known to be false in general, Mahler’s method provides one of the few known instances where it essentially holds true. After the works of Nishioka, and more recently of Philippon, Faverjon and the speaker, the theory of Mahler functions in one variable is now rather well understood. In contrast, and despite the contributions of Mahler, Loxton and van der Poorten, Kubota, Masser, and Nishioka among others, the theory of Mahler functions in several variables remains much less developed. In this talk, I will discuss recent progresses concerning the case of regular singular systems, as well as possible applications of this theory. This is a joint work with Colin Faverjon.
Any algebraic (resp. linear) relation over the field of rational functions with algebraic coefficients between given analytic functions leads by specialization to algebraic (resp. linear) relations over the field of algebraic numbers between the values of these functions. Number theorists have long been interested in proving results going in the other direction. Though the converse result is known to be false in general, Mahler’s method provides ...

11J81 ; 11J85 ; 11B85

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Post-edited  Local acyclicity in $p$-adic geometry
Scholze, Peter (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

Motivated by applications to the geometric Satake equivalence and in particular the construction of the fusion product, we define a notion of universally locally acyclic for rigid spaces and diamonds, and prove that it has the expected properties.

14G22 ; 11S37 ; 11F80 ; 14F30

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In this talk we discuss the convergence to equilibrium in conservative-dissipative ODE-systems, kinetic relaxation models (of BGK-type), and Fokker-Planck equation. This will include symmetric, non-symmetric and hypocoercive evolution equations. A main focus will be on deriving sharp decay rates.
We shall start with hypocoercivity in ODE systems, with the ”hypocoercivity index” characterizing its structural complexity.
BGK equations are kinetic transport equations with a relaxation operator that drives the phase space distribution towards the spatially local equilibrium, a Gaussian with the same macroscopic parameters. Due to the absence of dissipation w.r.t. the spatial direction, convergence to the global equilibrium is only possible thanks to the transport term that mixes various positions. Hence, such models are hypocoercive.
We shall prove exponential convergence towards the equilibrium with explicit rates for several linear, space periodic BGK-models in dimension 1 and 2. Their BGK-operators differ by the number of conserved macroscopic quantities (like mass, momentum, energy), and hence their hypocoercivity index. Our discussion includes also discrete velocity models, and the local exponential stability of a nonlinear BGK-model.
The third part of the talk is concerned with the entropy method for (non)symmetric Fokker-Planck equations, which is a powerful tool to analyze the rate of convergence to the equilibrium (in relative entropy and hence in L1). The essence of the method is to first derive a differential inequality between the first and second time derivative of the relative entropy, and then between the entropy dissipation and the entropy. For hypocoercive Fokker-Planck equations, i.e. degenerate parabolic equations (with drift terms that are linear in the spatial variable) we modify the classical entropy method by introducing an auxiliary functional (of entropy dissipation type) to prove exponential decay of the solution towards the steady state in relative entropy. The obtained rate is indeed sharp (both for the logarithmic and quadratic entropy). Finally, we extend the method to the kinetic Fokker-Planck equation (with nonquadratic potential).
In this talk we discuss the convergence to equilibrium in conservative-dissipative ODE-systems, kinetic relaxation models (of BGK-type), and Fokker-Planck equation. This will include symmetric, non-symmetric and hypocoercive evolution equations. A main focus will be on deriving sharp decay rates.
We shall start with hypocoercivity in ODE systems, with the ”hypocoercivity index” characterizing its structural complexity.
BGK equations are kinetic ...

35Q84 ; 35H10 ; 35B20 ; 35K10 ; 35B40 ; 47D07 ; 35Pxx ; 47D06 ; 82C31

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Classical invariant theory has essentially addressed the action of the general linear group on homogeneous polynomials. Yet the orthogonal group arises in applications as the relevant group of transformations, especially in 3 dimensional space. Having a complete set of invariants for its action on ternary quartics, i.e. degree 4 homogeneous polynomials in 3 variables, is, for instance, relevant in determining biomarkers for white matter from diffusion MRI.
We characterize a generating set of rational invariants of the orthogonal group acting on even degree forms by their restriction on a slice. These restrictions are invariant under the octahedral group and their explicit formulae are given compactly in terms of equivariant maps. The invariants of the orthogonal group can then be obtained in an explicit way, but their numerical evaluation can be achieved more robustly using their restrictions. The exhibited set of generators futhermore allows us to solve the inverse problem and the rewriting.
Central in obtaining the invariants for higher degree forms is the preliminary construction, with explicit formulae, for a basis of harmonic polynomials with octahedral symmetry, dif- ferent, though related, to cubic harmonics.
This is joint work with Paul Görlach (now at MPI Leipzig), in a joint project with Téo Papadopoulo (Inria Méditerranée).
Classical invariant theory has essentially addressed the action of the general linear group on homogeneous polynomials. Yet the orthogonal group arises in applications as the relevant group of transformations, especially in 3 dimensional space. Having a complete set of invariants for its action on ternary quartics, i.e. degree 4 homogeneous polynomials in 3 variables, is, for instance, relevant in determining biomarkers for white matter from ...

05E05 ; 13A50 ; 13P10 ; 68W30 ; 92C55

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