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Documents  60G50 | enregistrements trouvés : 15

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This talk is based on a work jointly with Timothy Budd (Copenhagen), Nicolas Curien (Orsay) and Igor Kortchemski (Ecole Polytechnique).
Consider a self-similar Markov process $X$ on $[0,\infty)$ which converges at infinity a.s. We interpret $X(t)$ as the size of a typical cell at time $t$, and each negative jump as a birth event. More precisely, if ${\Delta}X(s) = -y < 0$, then $s$ is the birth at time of a daughter cell with size $y$ which then evolves independently and according to the same dynamics. In turn, daughter cells give birth to granddaughter cells each time they make a negative jump, and so on.
The genealogical structure of the cell population can be described in terms of a branching random walk, and this gives rise to remarkable martingales. We analyze traces of these mar- tingales in physical time, and point at some applications for self-similar growth-fragmentation processes and for planar random maps.
This talk is based on a work jointly with Timothy Budd (Copenhagen), Nicolas Curien (Orsay) and Igor Kortchemski (Ecole Polytechnique).
Consider a self-similar Markov process $X$ on $[0,\infty)$ which converges at infinity a.s. We interpret $X(t)$ as the size of a typical cell at time $t$, and each negative jump as a birth event. More precisely, if ${\Delta}X(s) = -y < 0$, then $s$ is the birth at time of a daughter cell with size $y$ which then ...

60G51 ; 60G18 ; 60J75 ; 60G44 ; 60G50

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In the first half of the talk, I will survey results and open problems on transience of self-interacting martingales. In particular, I will describe joint works with S. Popov, P. Sousi, R. Eldan and F. Nazarov on the tradeoff between the ambient dimension and the number of different step distributions needed to obtain a recurrent process. In the second, unrelated, half of the talk, I will present joint work with Tom Hutchcroft, showing that the component structure of the uniform spanning forest in $\mathbb{Z}^d$ changes every dimension for $d > 8$. This sharpens an earlier result of Benjamini, Kesten, Schramm and the speaker (Annals Math 2004), where we established a phase transition every four dimensions. The proofs are based on a the connection to loop-erased random walks.
In the first half of the talk, I will survey results and open problems on transience of self-interacting martingales. In particular, I will describe joint works with S. Popov, P. Sousi, R. Eldan and F. Nazarov on the tradeoff between the ambient dimension and the number of different step distributions needed to obtain a recurrent process. In the second, unrelated, half of the talk, I will present joint work with Tom Hutchcroft, showing that the ...

05C05 ; 05C80 ; 60G50 ; 60J10 ; 60K35 ; 82B43

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We give some results about tree-indexed random walks aka branching random walks. In particular, we investigate the growth of the maximum of such a walk.
Based on joint work with Piotr Dyszewski and Thomas Hofelsauer.

60G50 ; 60J10 ; 60J80

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Multi angle  The classification of excursions
Mishna, Marni (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

Excursions are walks which start and end at prescribed locations. In this talk we consider the counting sequences of excursions, more precisely, the functional equations their generating functions satisfy. We focus on two sources of excursion problems: walks defined by their allowable steps, taken on integer lattices restricted to cones; and walks on Cayley graphs with a given set of generators. The latter is related to the cogrowth problems of groups. In both cases we are interested in relating the nature of the generating function (i.e. rational, algebraic, D-finite, etc.) and combinatorial properties of the models. We are also interested in the relation between the excursions, and less restricted families of walks.
Please note: A few corrections were made to the PDF file of this talk, the new version is available at the bottom of the page.
Excursions are walks which start and end at prescribed locations. In this talk we consider the counting sequences of excursions, more precisely, the functional equations their generating functions satisfy. We focus on two sources of excursion problems: walks defined by their allowable steps, taken on integer lattices restricted to cones; and walks on Cayley graphs with a given set of generators. The latter is related to the cogrowth problems of ...

05A15 ; 05C25 ; 60G50 ; 20F05

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Multi angle  Random walk on random digraph
Salez, Justin (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

A finite ergodic Markov chain exhibits cutoff if its distance to equilibrium remains close to its initial value over a certain number of iterations and then abruptly drops to near 0 on a much shorter time scale. Originally discovered in the context of card shuffling (Aldous-Diaconis, 1986), this remarkable phenomenon is now rigorously established for many reversible chains. Here we consider the non-reversible case of random walks on sparse directed graphs, for which even the equilibrium measure is far from being understood. We work under the configuration model, allowing both the in-degrees and the out-degrees to be freely specified. We establish the cutoff phenomenon, determine its precise window and prove that the cutoff profile approaches a universal shape. We also provide a detailed description of the equilibrium measure.
A finite ergodic Markov chain exhibits cutoff if its distance to equilibrium remains close to its initial value over a certain number of iterations and then abruptly drops to near 0 on a much shorter time scale. Originally discovered in the context of card shuffling (Aldous-Diaconis, 1986), this remarkable phenomenon is now rigorously established for many reversible chains. Here we consider the non-reversible case of random walks on sparse ...

05C80 ; 05C81 ; 60G50 ; 60J10

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The talk is about a class of systems of 2d statistical mechanics, such as random tilings, noncolliding walks, log-gases and random matrix-type distributions. Specific members in this class are integrable, which means that available exact formulas allow delicate asymptotic analysis leading to the Gaussian Free Field, sine-process, Tracy-Widom distributions. Extending the results beyond the integrable cases is challenging. I will speak about a recent progress in this direction: about universal local limit theorems for a class of lozenge and domino tilings, noncolliding random walks; and about GFF-type asymptotic theorems for global fluctuations in these systems and in discrete beta log-gases.
The talk is about a class of systems of 2d statistical mechanics, such as random tilings, noncolliding walks, log-gases and random matrix-type distributions. Specific members in this class are integrable, which means that available exact formulas allow delicate asymptotic analysis leading to the Gaussian Free Field, sine-process, Tracy-Widom distributions. Extending the results beyond the integrable cases is challenging. I will speak about a ...

60C05 ; 60G50 ; 52C20

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Complete wetting in the context of the low temperature two-dimensional Ising model is characterized by creation of a mesoscopic size layer of the "-" phase above an active substrate. Adding a small positive magnetic field h makes "-"-phase unstable, and the layer becomes only microscopically thick. Critical prewetting corresponds to a continuous divergence of this layer as h tends to zero. There is a conjectured 1/3 (diffusive) scaling leading to Ferrari-Spohn diffusions. Rigorous results were established for polymer models of random and self-avoiding walks under vanishing area tilts.
A similar 1/3-scaling is conjectured to hold for top level lines of low temperature SOS-type interfaces in three dimensions. In the latter case, the effective local structure is that of ordered walks, again under area tilts. The conjectured scaling limits (rigorously established in the random walk context) are ordered diffusions driven by Airy Slatter determinants.
Based on joint walks with Senya Shlosman, Yvan Velenik and Vitali Wachtel.
Complete wetting in the context of the low temperature two-dimensional Ising model is characterized by creation of a mesoscopic size layer of the "-" phase above an active substrate. Adding a small positive magnetic field h makes "-"-phase unstable, and the layer becomes only microscopically thick. Critical prewetting corresponds to a continuous divergence of this layer as h tends to zero. There is a conjectured 1/3 (diffusive) scaling leading ...

60K35 ; 82B41 ; 60G50 ; 60F17

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Multi angle  Random walks on dynamical percolation
Sousi, Perla (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

We study the behaviour of random walk on dynamical percolation. In this model, the edges of a graph are either open or closed and refresh their status at rate $\mu$, while at the same time a random walker moves on $G$ at rate 1, but only along edges which are open. On the d-dimensional torus with side length $n$, when the bond parameter is subcritical, the mixing times for both the full system and the random walker were determined by Peres, Stauffer and Steif. I will talk about the supercritical case, which was left open, but can be analysed using evolving sets.

Joint work with Y. Peres and J. Steif.
We study the behaviour of random walk on dynamical percolation. In this model, the edges of a graph are either open or closed and refresh their status at rate $\mu$, while at the same time a random walker moves on $G$ at rate 1, but only along edges which are open. On the d-dimensional torus with side length $n$, when the bond parameter is subcritical, the mixing times for both the full system and the random walker were determined by Peres, ...

60K35 ; 60J10 ; 60G50 ; 82B43

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This talk will introduce two statistical mechanics models on the lattice. The spins in these models have a hyperbolic symmetry. Correlations for these models can be expressed in terms of a random walk in a highly correlated random environment. In the SUSY hyperbolic case these walks are closely related to the vertex reinforced jump process and to the edge reinforced random walk. (Joint work with M. Disertori and M. Zirnbauer.)

60K37 ; 60G50 ; 60K35 ; 60J75 ; 81T25 ; 81T60

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We consider a model for a growing subset of a euclidean lattice (an "aggregate") where at each step one choose a random point from the existing aggregate, starts a random walk from that point, and adds the point of exit to the aggregate. We show that the limiting shape is a ball. Joint work with Itai Benjamini, Hugo Duminil-Copin and Cyril Lucas.

60G50 ; 60J60 ; 60K35

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We first introduce the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. We then consider the Random Walk Metropolis algorithm on $R^n$ with Gaussian proposals, and when the target probability measure is the $n$-fold product of a one dimensional law. It is well-known that, in the limit $n$ tends to infinity, starting at equilibrium and for an appropriate scaling of the variance and of the timescale as a function of the dimension $n$, a diffusive limit is obtained for each component of the Markov chain. We generalize this result when the initial distribution is not the target probability measure. The obtained diffusive limit is the solution to a stochastic differential equation nonlinear in the sense of McKean. We prove convergence to equilibrium for this equation. We discuss practical counterparts in order to optimize the variance of the proposal distribution to accelerate convergence to equilibrium. Our analysis confirms the interest of the constant acceptance rate strategy (with acceptance rate between 1/4 and 1/3).
We first introduce the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. We then consider the Random Walk Metropolis algorithm on $R^n$ with Gaussian proposals, and when the target probability measure is the $n$-fold product of a one dimensional law. It is well-known that, in the limit $n$ tends to infinity, starting at equilibrium and for an appropriate scaling of the variance and of the timescale as a function of the dimension $n$, a diffusive limit is obtained ...

60J22 ; 60J10 ; 60G50 ; 60F17 ; 60J60 ; 60G09 ; 65C40 ; 65C05

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Multi angle  Condensation in random trees 1/3
Kortchemski, Igor (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

We study a particular family of random trees which exhibit a condensation phenomenon (identified by Jonsson & Stefánsson in 2011), meaning that a unique vertex with macroscopic degree emerges. This falls into the more general framework of studying the geometric behavior of large random discrete structures as their size grows. Trees appear in many different areas such as computer science (where trees appear in the analysis of random algorithms for instance connected with data allocation), combinatorics (trees are combinatorial objects by essence), mathematical genetics (as phylogenetic trees), in statistical physics (for instance in connection with random maps as we will see below) and in probability theory (where trees describe the genealogical structure of branching processes, fragmentation processes, etc.). We shall specifically focus on Bienaymé-Galton-Watson trees (which is the simplest
possible genealogical model, where individuals reproduce in an asexual and stationary way), whose offspring distribution is subcritical and is regularly varying. The main tool is to code these trees by integer-valued random walks with negative drift, conditioned on a late return to the origin. The study of such random walks, which is of independent interest, reveals a "one-big jump principle" (identified by Armendáriz & Loulakis in 2011), thus explaining the condensation phenomenon.

Section 1 gives some history and motivations for studying Bienaymé-Galton-Watson trees.
Section 2 defines Bienaymé-Galton-Watson trees.
Section 3 explains how such trees can be coded by random walks, and introduce several useful tools, such as cyclic shifts and the Vervaat transformation, to study random walks under a conditioning involving positivity constraints.
Section 4 contains exercises to manipulate connections between BGW trees and random walks, and to study ladder times of downward skip-free random walks.
Section 5 gives estimates, such as maximal inequalities, for random walks in order to establish a "one-big jump principle".
Section 6 transfers results on random walks to random trees in order to identity the condensation phenomenon.

The goal of these lecture notes is to be as most self-contained as possible.
We study a particular family of random trees which exhibit a condensation phenomenon (identified by Jonsson & Stefánsson in 2011), meaning that a unique vertex with macroscopic degree emerges. This falls into the more general framework of studying the geometric behavior of large random discrete structures as their size grows. Trees appear in many different areas such as computer science (where trees appear in the analysis of random algorithms ...

60J80 ; 60G50 ; 05C05

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Multi angle  Condensation in random trees 2/3
Kortchemski, Igor (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

We study a particular family of random trees which exhibit a condensation phenomenon (identified by Jonsson & Stefánsson in 2011), meaning that a unique vertex with macroscopic degree emerges. This falls into the more general framework of studying the geometric behavior of large random discrete structures as their size grows. Trees appear in many different areas such as computer science (where trees appear in the analysis of random algorithms for instance connected with data allocation), combinatorics (trees are combinatorial objects by essence), mathematical genetics (as phylogenetic trees), in statistical physics (for instance in connection with random maps as we will see below) and in probability theory (where trees describe the genealogical structure of branching processes, fragmentation processes, etc.). We shall specifically focus on Bienaymé-Galton-Watson trees (which is the simplest
possible genealogical model, where individuals reproduce in an asexual and stationary way), whose offspring distribution is subcritical and is regularly varying. The main tool is to code these trees by integer-valued random walks with negative drift, conditioned on a late return to the origin. The study of such random walks, which is of independent interest, reveals a "one-big jump principle" (identified by Armendáriz & Loulakis in 2011), thus explaining the condensation phenomenon.

Section 1 gives some history and motivations for studying Bienaymé-Galton-Watson trees.
Section 2 defines Bienaymé-Galton-Watson trees.
Section 3 explains how such trees can be coded by random walks, and introduce several useful tools, such as cyclic shifts and the Vervaat transformation, to study random walks under a conditioning involving positivity constraints.
Section 4 contains exercises to manipulate connections between BGW trees and random walks, and to study ladder times of downward skip-free random walks.
Section 5 gives estimates, such as maximal inequalities, for random walks in order to establish a "one-big jump principle".
Section 6 transfers results on random walks to random trees in order to identity the condensation phenomenon.

The goal of these lecture notes is to be as most self-contained as possible.
We study a particular family of random trees which exhibit a condensation phenomenon (identified by Jonsson & Stefánsson in 2011), meaning that a unique vertex with macroscopic degree emerges. This falls into the more general framework of studying the geometric behavior of large random discrete structures as their size grows. Trees appear in many different areas such as computer science (where trees appear in the analysis of random algorithms ...

60J80 ; 60G50 ; 05C05

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Multi angle  Condensation in random trees 3/3
Kortchemski, Igor (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

We study a particular family of random trees which exhibit a condensation phenomenon (identified by Jonsson & Stefánsson in 2011), meaning that a unique vertex with macroscopic degree emerges. This falls into the more general framework of studying the geometric behavior of large random discrete structures as their size grows. Trees appear in many different areas such as computer science (where trees appear in the analysis of random algorithms for instance connected with data allocation), combinatorics (trees are combinatorial objects by essence), mathematical genetics (as phylogenetic trees), in statistical physics (for instance in connection with random maps as we will see below) and in probability theory (where trees describe the genealogical structure of branching processes, fragmentation processes, etc.). We shall specifically focus on Bienaymé-Galton-Watson trees (which is the simplest
possible genealogical model, where individuals reproduce in an asexual and stationary way), whose offspring distribution is subcritical and is regularly varying. The main tool is to code these trees by integer-valued random walks with negative drift, conditioned on a late return to the origin. The study of such random walks, which is of independent interest, reveals a "one-big jump principle" (identified by Armendáriz & Loulakis in 2011), thus explaining the condensation phenomenon.

Section 1 gives some history and motivations for studying Bienaymé-Galton-Watson trees.
Section 2 defines Bienaymé-Galton-Watson trees.
Section 3 explains how such trees can be coded by random walks, and introduce several useful tools, such as cyclic shifts and the Vervaat transformation, to study random walks under a conditioning involving positivity constraints.
Section 4 contains exercises to manipulate connections between BGW trees and random walks, and to study ladder times of downward skip-free random walks.
Section 5 gives estimates, such as maximal inequalities, for random walks in order to establish a "one-big jump principle".
Section 6 transfers results on random walks to random trees in order to identity the condensation phenomenon.

The goal of these lecture notes is to be as most self-contained as possible.
We study a particular family of random trees which exhibit a condensation phenomenon (identified by Jonsson & Stefánsson in 2011), meaning that a unique vertex with macroscopic degree emerges. This falls into the more general framework of studying the geometric behavior of large random discrete structures as their size grows. Trees appear in many different areas such as computer science (where trees appear in the analysis of random algorithms ...

60J80 ; 60G50 ; 05C05

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Multi angle  Non-free actions on the Poisson boundary
Erschler, Anna (Auteur de la Conférence) | CIRM (Editeur )

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