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Documents  90C06 | enregistrements trouvés : 3

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Machine learning pipelines often rely on optimization procedures to make discrete decisions (e.g. sorting, picking closest neighbors, finding shortest paths or optimal matchings). Although these discrete decisions are easily computed in a forward manner, they cannot be used to modify model parameters using first-order optimization techniques because they break the back-propagation of computational graphs. In order to expand the scope of learning problems that can be solved in an end-to-end fashion, we propose a systematic method to transform a block that outputs an optimal discrete decision into a differentiable operation. Our approach relies on stochastic perturbations of these parameters, and can be used readily within existing solvers without the need for ad hoc regularization or smoothing. These perturbed optimizers yield solutions that are differentiable and never locally constant. The amount of smoothness can be tuned via the chosen noise amplitude, whose impact we analyze. The derivatives of these perturbed solvers can be evaluated eciently. We also show how this framework can be connected to a family of losses developed in structured prediction, and describe how these can be used in unsupervised and supervised learning, with theoretical guarantees.
We demonstrate the performance of our approach on several machine learning tasks in experiments on synthetic and real data.
Machine learning pipelines often rely on optimization procedures to make discrete decisions (e.g. sorting, picking closest neighbors, finding shortest paths or optimal matchings). Although these discrete decisions are easily computed in a forward manner, they cannot be used to modify model parameters using first-order optimization techniques because they break the back-propagation of computational graphs. In order to expand the scope of learning ...

90C06 ; 68W20 ; 62F99

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Many machine learning and signal processing problems are traditionally cast as convex optimization problems. A common difficulty in solving these problems is the size of the data, where there are many observations ("large n") and each of these is large ("large p"). In this setting, online algorithms such as stochastic gradient descent which pass over the data only once, are usually preferred over batch algorithms, which require multiple passes over the data. Given n observations/iterations, the optimal convergence rates of these algorithms are $O(1/\sqrt{n})$ for general convex functions and reaches $O(1/n)$ for strongly-convex functions. In this tutorial, I will first present the classical results in stochastic approximation and relate them to classical optimization and statistics results. I will then show how the smoothness of loss functions may be used to design novel algorithms with improved behavior, both in theory and practice: in the ideal infinite-data setting, an efficient novel Newton-based stochastic approximation algorithm leads to a convergence rate of $O(1/n)$ without strong convexity assumptions, while in the practical finite-data setting, an appropriate combination of batch and online algorithms leads to unexpected behaviors, such as a linear convergence rate for strongly convex problems, with an iteration cost similar to stochastic gradient descent.
Many machine learning and signal processing problems are traditionally cast as convex optimization problems. A common difficulty in solving these problems is the size of the data, where there are many observations ("large n") and each of these is large ("large p"). In this setting, online algorithms such as stochastic gradient descent which pass over the data only once, are usually preferred over batch algorithms, which require multiple passes ...

62L20 ; 68T05 ; 90C06 ; 90C25

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Many machine learning and signal processing problems are traditionally cast as convex optimization problems. A common difficulty in solving these problems is the size of the data, where there are many observations ("large n") and each of these is large ("large p"). In this setting, online algorithms such as stochastic gradient descent which pass over the data only once, are usually preferred over batch algorithms, which require multiple passes over the data. Given n observations/iterations, the optimal convergence rates of these algorithms are $O(1/\sqrt{n})$ for general convex functions and reaches $O(1/n)$ for strongly-convex functions. In this tutorial, I will first present the classical results in stochastic approximation and relate them to classical optimization and statistics results. I will then show how the smoothness of loss functions may be used to design novel algorithms with improved behavior, both in theory and practice: in the ideal infinite-data setting, an efficient novel Newton-based stochastic approximation algorithm leads to a convergence rate of $O(1/n)$ without strong convexity assumptions, while in the practical finite-data setting, an appropriate combination of batch and online algorithms leads to unexpected behaviors, such as a linear convergence rate for strongly convex problems, with an iteration cost similar to stochastic gradient descent.
Many machine learning and signal processing problems are traditionally cast as convex optimization problems. A common difficulty in solving these problems is the size of the data, where there are many observations ("large n") and each of these is large ("large p"). In this setting, online algorithms such as stochastic gradient descent which pass over the data only once, are usually preferred over batch algorithms, which require multiple passes ...

62L20 ; 68T05 ; 90C06 ; 90C25

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